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Table 2 Fluid content, blood flow, cardiac function, and circulatory function at baseline and at study end in the two groups

From: Effects of the SGLT2 inhibitor dapagliflozin on cardiac function evaluated by impedance cardiography in patients with type 2 diabetes. Secondary analysis of a randomized placebo-controlled trial

Variable Placebo (n = 15) Dapagliflozin (n = 15) p*
Baseline 12 weeks Change p Baseline 12 weeks Change p
HR (beats/min) 68.6 (67.4; 78.3) 72.4 (66.9; 76.3) − 0.9 (− 4.4; 5.0) 0.91 66.3 (61.1; 79.6) 69.6 (64.1; 81.2) 2.0 (− 3.1; 4.6) 0.39 0.53
SBP (mmHg) 129.0 (118.9; 135.6) 126.0 (118.1; 136.7) 2.47 (− 9.3; 6.0) 0.84 141.9 (133.4; 152.7) 136.3 (130.1; 147.3) − 7.40 (− 8.9; 1.5) 0.03 0.04
DBP (mmHg) 76.1 (71.8; 81.4) 77.7 (73.9; 82.1) 2.3 (− 2.4; 4.6) 0.31 81.9 (75.4; 87.5) 82.0 (75.4; 84.7) − 2.6 (− 3.8; 4.6) 0.91 0.32
SV (mL) 98.9 (72.3; 113.6) 85.7 (78.9; 100.8) − 2.1 (− 16.6; 7.0) 0.33 94.8 (81.2; 104.0) 84.8 (70.3; 109.9) − 7.8 (− 16.6; 14.4) 0.50 0.92
SI (mL/m2) 48.0 (36.7; 51.7) 42.9 (39.3; 44.7) − 1.2 (− 8.2; 3.4) 0.43 47.1 (38.7; 56.3) 46.6 (39.2; 53.1) − 3.3 (− 8.2; 7.4) 0.61 0.76
CO (L/min) 6.63 (5.42; 7.97) 6.31 (4.71; 7.98) − 0.45 (− 0.79; 0.58) 0.46 6.94 (5.62; 7.81) 5.98 (5.52; 7.81) − 0.49 (− 0.85; 1.06) 0.87 0.49
CI (L/min/m2) 3.33 (2.86; 3.62) 3.28 (2.47; 3.54) − 0.21 (− 0.38; 0.29) 0.50 3.49 (2.86; 3.79) 3.45 (2.98; 3.66) − 0.23 (− 0.37; 0.55) 0.82 0.52
EF (%) 65.6 (60.8; 69.0) 65.8 (62.3; 67.8) 0.6 (− 1.3; 4.4) 0.26 66.9 (61.5; 69.9) 65.6 (60.4; 69.6) − 0.3 (− 4.4; 2.8) 0.43 0.19
AI (/100/s2) 47.6 (30.8; 53.6) 43.1 (36.1; 50.9) − 0.1 (− 5.8; 4.2) 0.65 55.6 (39.8; 70.9) 58.6 (41.2; 65.4) − 2.9 (− 10.2; 5.4) 0.39 0.85
VI (/1000/s) 33.1 (25.6; 42.4) 29.9 (25.7; 40.5) − 4.1 (− 6.4; 2.4) 0.17 42.1 (35.4; 45.9) 43.6 (31.6; 49.0) 1.7 (− 3.0; 4.7) 0.69 0.18
STR 0.29 (0.24; 0.37) 0.28 (0.25; 0.34) − 0.01 (− 0.07; 0.02) 0.22 0.27 (0.22; 0.35) 0.29 (0.23; 0.37) 0.00 (− 0.05; 0.07) 0.43 0.18
LVET (ms) 322.9 (311.7; 347.1) 330.0 (300.0; 364.8) 6.6 (− 10.4; 24.9) 0.57 337.0 (294.6; 376.6) 324.3 (298.8; 359.2) 1.8 (− 31.2; 17.4) 0.91 0.72
LCW (kg/min) 7.09 (6.18; 9.74) 6.71 (5.59; 9.50) − 0.16 (− 0.48; 0.52) 0.89 9.30 (6.57; 9.82) 7.50 (6.54; 9.68) 0.44 (− 0.92; 1.05) 0.96 0.85
LCWI (kg × min × m−2) 3.66 (3.20; 4.37) 3.53 (2.90; 4.32) − 0.08 (− 0.22; 0.26) 0.98 4.48 (3.37; 4.58) 4.12 (3.49; 4.93) 0.23 (− 0.45; 0.57) 0.82 0.77
SVR (dyne × s × cm−5) 924.0 (878.9; 1326.9) 1030.9 (904.3; 1374.6) 109.7 (− 76.6; 185.0) 0.36 1116.0 (965.8; 1358.8) 1157.3 (962.1; 1394.8) 81.1 (− 190.5; 174.4) 0.96 0.60
SVRI (dyne × s × cm−5 × m−2) 2051.9 (1770.6; 2581.4) 2119.0 (1887.7; 2672.8) 151.7 (− 150.86; 391.7) 0.39 2162.1 (1953.4; 2494.4) 2037.5 (1971.8; 2557.1) 150.7 (− 437.4; 310.5) 0.61 0.58
TFC (k/Ohm) 33.4 (29.0; 37.3) 29.9 (27.7; 34.9) − 0.86 (− 3.5; 0.6) 0.16 31.4 (28.9; 35.1) 31.6 (29.4; 36.3) − 0.8 (− 1.6; 1.6) 0.82 0.47
TFCI (k/Ohm/m2) 15.2 (13.5; 17.9) 14.5 (12.8; 17.7) − 0.3 (− 1.0; 0.2) 0.28 15.7 (14.9; 17.6) 15.6 (14.8; 18.1) 0.0 (− 0.5; 0.4) 0.86 0.35
TAC (mL/mmHg) 2.19 (1.65; 2.31) 1.83 (1.38; 2.65) 0.00 (− 0.39; 0.29) 0.70 1.95 (1.2; 2.22) 1.60 (1.19; 2.22) 0.00 (− 0.20; 0.19) 1.00 0.95
TACI (mL/mmHg/m2) 1.03 (0.78; 1.07) 0.91 (0.71; 1.17) 0.00 (− 0.18; 0.16) 0.84 0.97 (0.72; 1.06) 0.80 (0.68; 1.07) 0.00 (− 0.09; 0.11) 0.88 0.97
  1. Data are expressed as median (interquartile range)
  2. * p-values of comparison between changes observed in dapagliflozin group versus those in placebo group