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Table 1 Baseline characteristics according to the number of severe hypoglycemia event

From: Severe hypoglycemia and the risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality in type 2 diabetes: a nationwide population-based cohort study

  Total Severe hypoglycemia Number of severe hypoglycemia
No Yes P value No 1 2 3 or more P for trend
Total 1,568,097 1,548,437 (98.7) 19,660 (1.3)   1,548,437 (98.7) 15,992 (1.0) 2543 (0.2) 1125 (0.1)  
Age (%)     < 0.001      < 0.001
 30–49 years 360,764 (23.0) 358,253 (23.1) 2511 (12.8)   358,253 (23.1) 1985 (12.4) 309 (12.2) 217 (19.3)  
 50–64 years 681,133 (43.4) 675,499 (43.6) 5634 (28.7)   675,499 (43.6) 4715 (29.5) 627 (24.7) 292 (26.0)  
 65– years 526,200 (33.6) 514,685 (33.2) 11,515 (58.6)   514,685 (33.2) 9292 (58.1) 1607 (63.2) 616 (54.8)  
Sex (male) 857,078 (54.7) 847,922 (54.8) 9156 (46.6) < 0.001 847,922 (54.8) 7394 (46.2) 1181 (46.4) 581 (51.6) < 0.001
Urban (%) 737,077 (47.0) 729,017 (47.1) 8060 (41.0) < 0.001 729,017 (47.1) 6664 (41.7) 980 (38.6) 416 (37.0) < 0.001
Socioeconomic status (%)     < 0.001      < 0.001
 Lower 30% 533,293 (34.0) 524,963 (33.9) 8330 (42.4)   524,963 (33.9) 6530 (40.8) 1179 (46.4) 621 (55.2)  
 Mid 40% 486,963 (31.1) 481,579 (31.1) 5384 (27.4)   481,579 (31.1) 4508 (28.2) 640 (25.2) 236 (21.0)  
 Upper 30% 547,841 (34.9) 541,895 (35.0) 5946 (30.2)   541,895 (35.0) 4954 (31.0) 724 (28.5) 268 (23.8)  
Medication (%)
 Insulin 224,761 (14.3) 215,976 (14.0) 8785 (44.7) < 0.001 215,976 (14.0) 6800 (42.5) 1316 (51.8) 669 (59.5) < 0.001
 Sulfonylurea 1223,327 (78.0) 1,208,722 (78.1) 14,605 (74.3) < 0.001 1,208,722 (78.1) 12,043 (75.3) 1827 (71.8) 735 (65.3) < 0.001
 Metformin 1,110,628 (70.8) 1,097,712 (70.9) 12,916 (65.7) < 0.001 1,097,712 (70.9) 10,562 (66.1) 1664 (65.4) 690 (61.3) < 0.001
 Meglitinide 74,406 (4.7) 72,350 (4.67) 2056 (10.5) < 0.001 72,350 (4.67) 1571 (9.8) 346 (13.6) 139 (12.4) < 0.001
 Thiazolidinedione 212,955 (13.6) 210,178 (13.6) 2777 (14.1) 0.025 210,178 (13.6) 2274 (14.2) 344 (13.5) 159 (14.1) 0.115
 DPP4 inhibitor 137,010 (8.7) 135,428 (8.8) 1582 (8.1) 0.001 135,428 (8.8) 1265 (7.9) 224 (8.8) 93 (8.3) 0.003
 Acarbose 345,942 (22.1) 339,257 (21.9) 6685 (34.0) < 0.001 339,257 (21.9) 5330 (33.3) 968 (38.1) 387 (34.4) < 0.001
Hypertension (%) 872,321 (55.6) 858,893 (55.5) 13,428 (68.3) < 0.001 858,893 (55.5) 10,895 (68.1) 1778 (69.9) 755 (67.1) < 0.001
Dyslipidemia (%) 593,295 (37.8) 586,718 (37.9) 6577 (33.5) < 0.001 586,718 (37.9) 5496 (34.4) 791 (31.1) 290 (25.8) < 0.001
COPD (%) 52,126 (3.3) 51,244 (3.3) 882 (4.5) < 0.001 51,244 (3.3) 712 (4.5) 124 (4.9) 46 (4.1) < 0.001
Malignancy (%) 17,121 (1.1) 16,738 (1.1) 383 (2.0) < 0.001 16,738 (1.1) 312 (2.0) 52 (2.0) 19 (1.7) < 0.001
Liver cirrhosis (%) 4072 (0.3) 3984 (0.3) 88 (0.5) < 0.001 3984 (0.3) 71 (0.4) 12 (0.5) 5 (0.4) < 0.001
ESRD (%) 962 (0.1) 862 (0.1) 100 (0.5) < 0.001 862 (0.1) 79 (0.5) 13 (0.5) 8 (0.7) < 0.001
  1. Values are presented as percentage or mean ± standard deviation
  2. COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ESRD end-stage renal disease