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Table 1 Baseline characteristics

From: Insulin resistance and dysglycemia are associated with left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction in non-diabetic patients

HOMA-IR tertiles Low Intermediate High P-value
n 174 150 161
Demographic characteristics
 Age, years, mean (SD) 65.24 (10.45) 62.37 (11.23) 59.93 (11.84) < 0.001
 Male, n (%) 154 (88.51) 132 (88.00) 149 (92.55) 0.342
Clinical measures, mean (SD)
 BMI, kg/m2 23.09 (3.00) 24.76 (2.93) 25.95 (3.78) < 0.001
 SBP, mmHg 121.07 (17.36) 124.71 (17.87) 125.37 (20.30) 0.078
 DBP, mmHg 71.99 (11.45) 75.57 (11.98) 77.76 (12.02) < 0.001
Current or former smoker, n (%) 87 (50.00) 72 (48.00) 66 (40.99) 0.228
Diseased vessels, n (%)
 Single-vessel disease 59 (33.91) 46 (30.67) 52 (32.30) 0.768
 Multi-vessel disease 115 (66.09) 104 (69.33) 109 (67.70)
Medical history, n (%)
 Hypertension 90 (51.72) 86 (57.33) 101 (62.73) 0.126
 Atrial fibrillation or flutter 6 (3.45) 8 (5.33) 8 (4.97) 0.682
 Chronic kidney disease 8 (4.60) 10 (6.67) 13 (8.07) 0.424
 Cerebrovascular disease 20 (11.49) 8 (5.33) 16 (9.94) 0.140
Laboratory values, median (IQR) or mean (SD)
 HbA1c, % 5.60 (5.40–5.90) 5.75 (5.40–6.10) 5.70 (5.40–5.90) 0.116
 Fasting glucose, mmol/L 5.04 (0.87) 5.45 (0.76) 6.17 (0.94) < 0.001
 Fasting insulin, μU/mL 5.61 (2.12) 10.32 (1.95) 21.67 (10.83) < 0.001
 Triglyceride, mmol/L 1.31 (0.99–1.73) 1.51 (1.08–2.07) 1.65 (1.18–2.30) < 0.001
 Total cholesterol, mmol/L 4.50 (1.44) 4.37 (0.83) 4.77 (1.06) 0.040
 HDL cholesterol, mmol/L 1.04 (0.26) 1.02 (0.22) 1.02 (0.23) 0.855
 LDL cholesterol, mmol/L 2.85 (1.31) 2.67 (0.68) 3.02 (0.86) 0.044
 Apolipoprotein A–I, g/L 1.10 (0.20) 1.11 (0.19) 1.14 (0.18) 0.381
 Apolipoprotein B, g/L 0.89 (0.29) 0.90 (0.21) 0.94 (0.19) 0.084
 Alanine aminotransferase, IU/L 40.96 (23.55) 37.12 (18.47) 61.98 (44.55) < 0.001
 Aspatate aminotransferase, IU/L 140.90 (141.13) 137.10 (123.68) 238.58 (213.27) < 0.001
 Blood urea nitrogen, mmol/L 5.20 (4.10–6.20) 5.00 (4.20–6.00) 5.10 (4.20–6.50) 0.497
 Serum creatinine, μmol/L 78.00 (62.25–87.00) 77.00 (67.00–87.00) 80.00 (68.00–92.00) 0.166
 eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m2 83.42 (20.70) 88.11 (21.65) 85.38 (19.15) 0.178
 hsCRP, mg/L 5.84 (2.31–13.74) 4.50 (2.06–11.47) 3.96 (1.81–12.85) 0.151
 NT-proBNP, pg/mL 1049.00 (718.10–2668.00) 859.55 (309.30–1843.00) 466.60 (278.70–1344.75) < 0.001
 cTnI (ng/mL) 6.19 (0.35–29.86) 9.94 (0.32–36.47) 24.40 (1.78–75.45) < 0.001
Medication use, n (%)
 ACEI or ARBs 125 (71.84) 114 (76.00) 133 (82.61) 0.064
 Beta-blockers 146 (83.91) 122 (81.33) 135 (83.85) 0.787
 Statins 170 (97.70) 142 (94.67) 157 (97.52) 0.243
 Spirolactone 10 (5.75) 12 (8.00) 20 (12.42) 0.089
  1. ACEI angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker, cTnI cardiac troponin I, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, BMI body mass index, DBP diastolic blood pressure, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin A1c, HDL high-density lipoprotein, HOMA-IR homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance, hsCRP high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, IQR interquartile range, LDL low-density lipoprotein, NT-proBNP N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, SBP systolic blood pressure, SD standard deviation