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Table 3 Beta coefficients and 95% confidence intervals from multivariable linear regression models of the association of behavior changes in the year following diabetes diagnosis and cardiovascular risk factors measured 1 year after diagnosis

From: Changes in behaviors after diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and 10-year incidence of cardiovascular disease and mortality

  HbA1c (%) Cholesterol (mmol/l) LDL (mmol/l) Triglycerides (mmol/l) Systolic BP (mmHg) Diastolic BP (mmHg)
Na βb [95% CI] Na βb [95% CI] Na βb [95% CI] Na βb [95% CI] Na βb [95% CI] Na βb [95% CI]
Physical activity
 Increased ≥ 2 MET hours/day 211 − 0.05 [− 0.16, 0.05] 212 -0.02 [− 0.18, 0.14] 206 − 0.03 [− 0.16, 0.10] 212 − 0.02 [− 0.14, 0.10] 213 − 1.41 [− 4.40, 1.57] 213 0.08 [− 1.76, 1.93]
 Maintained within 2 MET hours/day 266 1 271 1 263 1 271 1 271 1 271 1
 Decreased ≥ 2 MET hours/day 189 0.05 [− 0.08, 0.19] 190 -0.00 [− 0.18, 0.17] 183 − 0.03 [− 0.21, 0.14] 190 0.04 [− 0.07, 0.15] 191 2.34 [− 1.36, 6.05] 191 1.06 [− 0.28, 2.40]
Alcohol
 Decreased ≥ 2 units/week or abstained 350 0.10 [− 0.02, 0.21] 352 − 0.05 [− 0.18, 0.08] 343 − 0.02 [− 0.14, 0.10] 352 − 0.01 [− 0.11, 0.09] 354 − 1.38 [− 4.50, 1.73] 354 − 1.32 [− 3.25, 0.61]
 Maintained within 2 units/week 206 1 210 1 203 1 210 1 210 1 210 1
 Increased ≥ 2 units/week 97 − 0.11 [− 0.33, 0.11] 97 0.16 [− 0.04, 0.36] 94 0.05 [− 0.11, 0.21] 97 0.02 [− 0.10, 0.14] 97 2.61 [− 1.75, 6.97] 97 0.96 [− 1.40, 3.32]
Energy intake
 Decreased ≥ 300 kcal 295 − 0.14 [− 0.32, 0.03] 297 − 0.08 [− 0.22, 0.06] 290 − 0.13 [− 0.23, − 0.03] 297 − 0.03 [− 0.14, 0.07] 296 1.95 [− 2.13, 6.03] 296 0.16 [− 1.63, 1.95]
 Maintained within 300 kcal 267 1 271 1 262 1 271 1 273 1 273  
 Increased > 300 kcal 95 0.03 [− 0.15, 0.22] 96 0.06 [− 0.14, 0.25] 91 − 0.06 [− 0.21, 0.08] 96 0.05 [− 0.10, 0.20] 97 3.72 [− 0.32, 7.76] 97 0.94 [− 1.46, 3.33]
Fat as % of energy intake
 Decreased ≥ 4% 249 − 0.10 [− 0.25, 0.05] 250 − 0.08 [− 0.23, 0.06] 245 − 0.05 [− 0.18, 0.07] 250 − 0.05 [− 0.14, 0.05] 252 0.43 [− 2.94, 3.79] 252 − 1.78 [− 3.52, − 0.03]
 Maintained within 4% 298 1 304 1 290 1 304 1 304 1 304 1
 Increased ≥ 4% 110 0.04 [− 0.14, 0.22] 110 0.13 [− 0.08, 0.35] 108 0.17 [− 0.01, 0.35] 110 − 0.02 [− 0.16, 0.11] 110 2.61 [− 1.25, 6.47] 110 0.65 [− 2.04, 3.34]
Fibre intake
 Increased > 3 g/day 239 0.07 [− 0.08, 0.22] 239 − 0.05 [− 0.19, 0.09] 231 − 0.04 [− 0.18, 0.09] 239 0.02 [− 0.09, 0.12] 241 0.17 [− 2.66, 2.99] 241 0.09 [− 1.62, 1.80]
 Maintained within 3 g/day 285 1 290 1 281 1 290 1 291 1 291 1
 Decreased ≥ 3 g/day 133 0.12 [− 0.09, 0.34] 135 0.06 [− 0.09, 0.22] 131 − 0.08 [− 0.22, 0.06] 135 0.10 [− 0.01, 0.20] 134 3.09 [− 0.43, 6.62] 134 1.79 [− 0.37, 3.94]
Plasma vitamin C
 Increased > 10 µmol/l 199 − 0.08 [− 0.25, 0.10] 199 − 0.06 [− 0.31, 0.19] 194 − 0.00 [− 0.21, 0.21] 199 − 0.16 [− 0.28, − 0.05] 199 − 2.65 [− 6.32, 1.02] 199 − 1.34 [− 3.23, 0.55]
 Maintained within 10 µmol/l 231 1 236 1 227 1 236 1 236 1 236 1
 Decreased ≥ 10 µmol/l 154 0.08 [− 0.12, 0.29] 156 − 0.03 [− 0.23, 0.18] 152 − 0.03 [− 0.23, 0.16] 156 − 0.02 [− 0.11, 0.08] 155 − 0.67 [− 4.15, 2.81] 155 − 0.87 [− 3.05, 1.31]
Behavior change score
 0 changes 35 1 36 1 34 1 36 1 36 1 36 1
 1 change 144 − 0.23 [− 0.69, 0.23] 145 − 0.16 [− 0.44, 0.12] 139 − 0.11 [− 0.36, 0.15] 145 − 0.01 [− 0.20, 0.18] 144 − 0.78 [− 6.42, 4.86] 144 − 1.08 [− 4.33, 2.17]
 2 changes 215 − 0.20 [− 0.58, 0.18] 217 − 0.40 [− 0.64, − 0.15] 211 − 0.18 [− 0.38, 0.02] 217 − 0.13 [− 0.32, 0.06] 217 1.07 [− 4.23, 6.38] 217 − 2.47 [− 5.61, 0.67]
 3–4 changes 165 − 0.11 [− 0.49, 0.27] 167 − 0.40 [− 0.64, − 0.15] 165 − 0.21 [− 0.42, − 0.01] 167 − 0.14 [− 0.33, 0.05] 167 − 2.05 [− 7.59, 3.49] 167 − 2.63 [− 5.86, 0.61]
  1. ADDITION-Cambridge 2002–2014
  2. aThe total number of participants with nonmissing information on all covariates in the full model
  3. bModels are adjusted for age, sex, BMI at baseline, smoking at 1 year, SES, education, treatment group, relevant cardio-protective medication use, and baseline value of the behavior