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Table 2 Hazard ratios for the association of behavior changes from baseline to 1 year and CVD and all-cause mortality at 10 years follow-up

From: Changes in behaviors after diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and 10-year incidence of cardiovascular disease and mortality

Behavior change Baseline, mean (SD) 1 year, mean (SD) Mean change (SD) N cases/N totala HR [95% CI]b CVD N cases/N totala HR [95% CI]b all-cause mortality
Total physical activity (MET hours/day)
 Increased ≥ 2 MET hours 10.1 (6.6) 16.4 (8.8) 6.3 (4.5) 30/218 1.10 [0.61, 1.98] 27/218 0.87 [0.47, 1.60]
 Maintained within 2 MET hours 9.1 (5.3) 9.1 (5.4) 0.0 (1.1) 36/277 1 41/277 1
 Decreased ≥ 2 MET hours 16.6 (8.8) 10.1 (6.3) − 6.5 (5.5) 26/198 0.92 [0.55, 1.55] 25/198 0.90 [0.50, 1.63]
Alcohol (mean units/week)
 Decreased ≥ 2 units or abstained 8.5 (13.6) 5.1 (9.3) − 3.4 (6.1) 38/361 0.56 [0.36, 0.87] 52/362 1.06 [0.67, 1.67]
 Maintained within 2 units 5.5 (6.4) 5.5 (6.3) 0.0 (0.8) 38/213 1 25/214 1
 Increased ≥ 2 units 9.2 (8.2) 15.6 (13.4) 6.4 (7.7) 15/101 0.72 [0.34, 1.53] 15/101 1.13 [0.67, 1.93]
Energy intake (kcal/day)
 Decreased ≥ 300 kcal 2376 (721) 1590 (490) − 786 (472) 38/303 0.78 [0.46, 1.33] 34/303 0.56 [0.34, 0.92]
 Maintained within 300 kcal 1682 (469) 1653 (482) − 29 (164) 37/279 1 44/279 1
 Increased ≥ 300 kcal 1617 (546) 2284 (829) 668 (301) 16/102 1.36 [0.69, 2.69] 14/102 1.19 [0.56, 2.52]
Fat as percentage of energy intake (%)
 Decreased ≥ 4% 35.6 (5.4) 27.4 (5.7) − 8.3 (3.9) 37/256 1.03 [0.64, 1.65] 38/256 0.95 [0.59, 1.53]
 Maintained within 4% 32.4 (5.4) 32.0 (5.2) − 0.3 (2.3) 40/314 1 37/314 1
 Increased ≥ 4% 28.0 (6.2) 35.7 (5.7) 7.8 (3.5) 14/114 0.87 [0.41, 1.85] 17/114 1.22 [0.58, 2.57]
Fibre intake (g/day)
 Increased > 3 g/day 15.0 (5.5) 24.1 (15.7) 9.0 (14.1) 32/250 0.94 [0.57, 1.55] 32/250 0.99 [0.57, 1.71]
 Maintained within 3 g/day 16.0 (5.5) 16.1 (5.5) 0.1 (1.7) 41/296 1 44/296 1
 Decreased ≥ 3 g/day 22.8 (7.9) 15.5 (5.7) − 7.4 (5.0) 18/138 1.36 [0.63, 2.94] 16/138 0.93 [0.42, 2.06]
Plasma vitamin C (µmol/l)
 Increased > 10 µmol/l 41.6 (18.2) 67.4 (23.8) 25.8 (16.3) 22/199 0.68 [0.41, 1.13] 29/199 1.18 [0.69, 2.01]
 Maintained within 10 µmol/l 53.1 (21.6) 53.0 (22.0) 0.0 (5.5) 34/236 1 31/236 1
 Decreased ≥ 10 µmol/l 65.5 (21.4) 40.6 (19.0) − 24.9 (12.5) 21/156 0.97 [0.58, 1.65] 17/156 0.85 [0.41, 1.77]
Behavior change score
 0 changes n/a n/a n/a 9/36 1 5/37 1
 1 change n/a n/a n/a 25/145 0.60 [0.26, 1.37] 16/146 0.68 [0.23, 2.00]
 2 changes n/a n/a n/a 23/217 0.39 [0.18, 0.82] 40/220 1.15 [0.45, 2.89]
 3–4 changes n/a n/a n/a 19/167 0.42 [0.19, 0.95] 14/170 0.46 [0.13, 1.54]
  1. ADDITION-Cambridge 2002–2014 (N = 852)
  2. aThe total number of participants with nonmissing information on all covariates in the full model
  3. bModels are adjusted for age, sex, SES, education, BMI at baseline, smoking at 1 year, baseline value of the behavior, treatment group, and use of antihypertensive, glucose-lowering or lipid-lowering medications at 1 year