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Table 1 Characteristics of type 2 diabetes patients at time of diagnosis (baseline) and 1 year later

From: Changes in behaviors after diagnosis of type 2 diabetes and 10-year incidence of cardiovascular disease and mortality

  Female (n = 330) Male (n = 522)
Baseline 1 year Baseline 1 year
Cohort characteristics
 BMI (kg/m2), mean (SD) 34.7 (6.0) 33.1 (6.1) 32.7 (5.4) 31.7 (5.2)
  Missing, n (%) 2 (0.6%) 50 (15.2%) 3 (0.6%) 74 (14.2%)
 Weight (kg), mean (SD) 88.2 (16.1) 84.3 (16.5) 98.5 (17.8) 95.6 (17.1)
  N missing 1 (0.3%) 50 (15.2%) 3 (0.6%) 74 (14.2%)
 Smoking, n (%)
  Current 47 (14.3%) 33 (11.5%) 104 (19.9%) 77 (17.0%)
  Former 123 (37.4%) 113 (39.4%) 268 (51.3%) 243 (53.8%)
  Never 159 (48.3%) 141 (49.1%) 150 (28.7%) 132 (29.2%)
  Missing, n (%) 1 (0.3%) 43 (13.0%) 0 (0.0%) 70 (13.4%)
CVD risk factors
 HbA1c (%), mean (SD) 7.2 (1.6) 6.5 (0.8) 7.4 (1.7) 6.5 (0.9)
  mmol/mol, mean 55.2 47.5 57.4 47.5
  Missing, n (%) 12 (3.6%) 55 (17.0%) 9 (1.7%) 76 (14.6%)
 Blood pressure (mmHg), mean (SD)
  Systolic 140 (20) 133 (18) 143 (20) 138 (18)
  Diastolic 80 (9) 77 (9) 83 (11) 80 (10)
  Missing, n (%) 2 (0.6%) 52 (15.8%) 0 (0.0%) 73 (14.0%)
 Lipids (mmol/l), mean (SD)
  Total cholesterol 5.6 (1.1) 4.7 (0.9) 5.2 (1.1) 4.4 (1.0)
   Missing, n (%) 10 (3.0%) 51 (15.5%) 9 (1.7%) 73 (14.0%)
  LDL 3.4 (1.0) 2.6 (0.8) 3.2 (1.0) 2.5 (0.9)
   Missing, n (%) 15 (4.5%) 58 (17.6%) 35 (6.7%) 90 (17.2%)
  Triglyceride 1.9 (1.1) 1.8 (1.0) 2.2 (1.8) 2.0 (1.5)
   Missing, n (%) 10 (3.0%) 51 (15.5%) 10 (1.9%) 73 (14.0%)
Medication use, n (%)
 Glucose-lowering
  Yes 1 (0.3%) 81 (28.7%) 3 (0.6%) 143 (32.1%)
  No 327 (99.7%) 201 (71.3%) 519 (99.4%) 303 (67.9%)
  Missing, n (%) 2 (0.6%) 48 (14.5%) 0 (0.0%) 76 (14.6%)
 Antihypertensive
  Yes 212 (64.6%) 207 (73.4%) 278 (53.3%) 297 (66.6%)
  No 116 (35.4%) 75 (26.6%) 244 (46.7%) 149 (33.4%)
  Missing, n (%) 2 (0.6%) 48 (14.5%) 0 (0.0%) 76 (14.6%)
 Lipid-lowering
  Yes 70 (21.3%) 186 (66.0%) 136 (26.1%) 292 (65.5%)
  No 258 (78.7%) 96 (34.0%) 386 (73.9%) 154 (34.5%)
  Missing, n (%) 2 (0.6%) 48 (14.5%) 0 (0.0%) 76 (14.6%)
Health behaviors
 Total physical activity (MET hours/day), median (Q1, Q3) 8.9 (5.6, 12.0) 8.7 (6.1, 12.4) 10.6 (6.9, 16.3) 11.4 (7.3, 17.4)
  Missing, n (%) 2 (0.6%) 42 (12.7%) 1 (0.2%) 69 (13.2%)
 Energy intake (kcal/day), mean (SD) 1832 (650) 1660 (645) 2057 (734) 1762 (570)
  Missing, n (%) 5 (1.5%) 43 (13.0%) 7 (1.3%) 72 (13.8%)
 Fiber intake (g/day), mean (SD) 17.6 (6.9) 19.8 (11.1) 16.4 (6.6) 18.3 (11.1)
  Missing, n (%) 5 (1.5%) 43 (13.0%) 7 (1.3%) 72 (13.8%)
 Fat as percentage of energy intake, mean (SD) 32.7 (6.0) 30.4 (6.0) 33.2 (6.3) 31.3 (6.3)
  Missing, n (%) 5 (1.5%) 43 (13.0%) 7 (1.3%) 72 (13.8%)
 Plasma vitamin C (µmol/l), mean (SD) 56.7 (23.4) 60.9 (24.9) 49.7 (21.7) 50.4 (22.5)
  Missing, n (%) 41 (12.4%) 62 (18.8%) 45 (8.6%) 86 (16.5%)
 Alcohol (mean units/week), mean (SD) 3.3 (5.9) 3.0 (5.1) 10.3 (13.2) 9.0 (11.4)
  Missing, n (%) 8 (2.4%) 48 (14.5%) 6 (1.1%) 74 (14.2%)
  1. ADDITION-Cambridge (N = 852) 2002–2014