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Table 1 General characteristics among participants with and without CVD

From: Novel associations between sex hormones and diabetic vascular complications in men and postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study

  Men Postmenopausal women
Without CVD With CVD Without CVD With CVD
N 1375 772 1455 954
Demographic parameter
 Age, years 65.99 ± 8.77 70.19 ± 7.94* 66.24 ± 7.43 69.78 ± 7.61*
 Duration of diabetes, years 9.6 ± 7.68 11.2 ± 8.05* 9.22 ± 7.64 11.66 ± 8.52*
 HbA1c, % 7.56 ± 1.41 7.62 ± 1.41 7.38 ± 1.37 7.45 ± 1.3
 BMI, kg/m2 24.84 ± 3.41 25.28 ± 3.14* 24.61 ± 3.82 25.28 ± 3.72*
 Smoking, % 39.7 29.3* 2.6 2.2
 Hypertension, % 73.5 86.3* 75.5 87.2*
 Dyslipidemia, % 59.9 70.5* 57.6 65.8*
Sex hormone level
 TT, nmol/L 15 ± 5.86 14.5 ± 6 0.59 ± 0.43 0.65 ± 0.64*
 E2, pmol/L 114 (89.62, 138.9) 121.15 (95.47, 144.4)* 29.38 (9.18, 50.15) 31.67 (9.18, 53.21)
 DHEA, pg/mL 202.39 ± 103.71 167.88 ± 89.1* 132.98 ± 67.91 124.76 ± 67.77*
 FSH, IU/L 12 ± 9.94 13.53 ± 12.42* 55.28 ± 23.02 55.84 ± 24.35
 LH, IU/L 8.27 ± 5.03 8.99 ± 6.43* 26.05 ± 11.42 26.38 ± 12.62
Carotid artery ultrasound
 CCA plaque, % 63.5 77.3* 42 52.7*
 CCA diameter, mm 7.77 ± 0.88 7.92 ± 0.88* 7.48 ± 0.79 7.68 ± 0.78*
 cIMT, mm 0.87 ± 0.15 0.89 ± 0.15* 0.81 ± 0.13 0.84 ± 0.14*
  1. Normally distributed variables are expressed as mean ± standard deviation, non-normal variables are expressed as median (P25, P75) and categorical variables are expressed as percentage (%). The Student’s t test was used to compare the continuous variables of the normal distribution, the Mann–Whitney U test was used for the comparison of the non-normal distribution continuous variables, and the Pearson χ2 test was used for the comparison between the categorical variables
  2. * P < 0.05, compared with those without CVD