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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Effect of metformin on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with coronary artery diseases: a systematic review and an updated meta-analysis

AuthorYearStudy designGender male %AgeSample sizeFollow-up (y)CountryPatientThe NOS for assessing the quality of studies
SelectionComparabilityExposure
Abualsuod [21]2015Retrospective cohort52%60.42 (13.36)7201USAMI + T2DM
Al Ali [22]2016RCT81%57.9 (11.4)2370.3NetherlandsMI-T2DM
Basnet [23]2015Case control65%2740.0USAMI + T2DM
Chen [24]2016Retrospective cohort53%52.53 (10.07)179,7420.3CanadaT2DM
Duncan [25]2007Retrospective cohort76%65 (58–72)12840.0USACVD + T2DM
Eppinga [26]2016RCT75%58.80 (11.82)3710.3NetherlandsMI-T2DM
Evans [27]2006Retrospective cohort51%60.279675.0UKT2DM
Facila [28]2017RCT56%71 (10)8352.4SpainHF + T2DM
Fung [29]2015Retrospective cohort40%61.70 (10.75)11,2935.0ChinaT2DM
Hartman [30]2017RCT3792.0NetherlandsMI-T2DM
Hong [31]2013RCT78%62.8 (8.5)3045.0ChinaCVD + T2DM
Johnson [32]2005Retrospective cohort52%64.3 (12.4)41429.0CanadaT2DM
Jong [16]2019Retrospective cohort74%65.9 (10.8)6362.0TaiwanMI + T2DM
Kitao [33]2017RCT65%60 (20–74)960.3JapanT2DM-CVD
Kooy [34]2009RCT41%64 (10)3904.0NetherlandsT2DM
Kruszelnicka [35]2015Case control60%67 (8)700.0PolandCVD + T2DM
Lexis [36]2012RCT3500.8–10.7NetherlandsMI-T2DM
Lexis [37]2014Retrospective cohort64%66 (12)39480.3NetherlandsMI + T2DM
Lexis [38]2015RCT77%58.1 (11.9)3460.4NetherlandsMI-T2DM
Lexis [39]2014aRCT75%58.7 (11.8)3790.3NetherlandsMI-T2DM
Li [40]2014RCT68%62.4 (11.0)1521.0ChinaT2DM
Liu [41]2016Retrospective cohort44%60.7272,1497.4USAT2DM
Liu [42]2017RCT47%59 (17)600.5ChinaCVD + T2DM
Morgan [43]2014Retrospective cohort36%66.6 (10.4)52080.0UKT2DM
Pantalone [44]2009Retrospective cohort42%56.8 (13.9)20,450nUSAT2DM-CVD
Preiss [45]2014RCT81%63 (8)1731.5UKCVD-T2DM
Rachmani [46]2002RCT53%65 (4)3934.0IsraelT2DM
Raee [47]2017Retrospective cohort42%55 (11.1)71713.6IranT2DM
Retwiński [48]2018Retrospective cohort70%64.5 (10.5)10301.0PolandHF + T2DM
Romero [49]2013Retrospective cohort47%70.5 (7.0)11849.0SpainHF + T2DM
Roumie [50]2012Retrospective cohort97%65 (57–74)161,2965.0USAT2DM
Roumie [51]2017Retrospective cohort97%66 (57–75)131,9727.5USAT2DM
Roussel [52]2010Retrospective cohort66%67.1 (9.3)19,6912.0FranceT2DM
Scheller [53]2014Retrospective cohort52%59.0 (15.2)84,7564.0DenmarkT2DM
Schramm [54]2011Retrospective cohort51%52.5 (14.0)110,3749.0DenmarkT2DM
Shah [55]2010Retrospective cohort79%56 (11)1312.0USAHF + T2DM
Sillars [56]2010Retrospective cohort44%60.6 (11.9)127115.0AustraliaT2DM
Wang [57]2017Retrospective cohort72.49 (5.15)41,2048.0USAT2DM
Wong [58]2012RCT90%64 (8)620.3UKHF-T2DM
Zeller [59]2016Case control76%61 (11)3720.0FranceMI + T2DM
Total studies40   1,066,408