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Table 1 Population baseline characteristics

From: Subclinical atherosclerosis burden predicts cardiovascular events in individuals with diabetes and chronic kidney disease

  CKD without diabetes N = 1747 CKD with diabetes N = 698 p-value
Gender, male 1047 (59.9%) 461 (66.0%) 0.006
CKD stage    < 0.001
 CKD-3 662 (37.9%) 288 (41.3%)  
 CKD-4/5 551 (31.5%) 256 (36.7%)  
 RTT 534 (30.6%) 154 (22.1%)  
Age [years] 59.0 [48.0;67.0] 65.0 [56.0;70.0] < 0.001
Current smoker 967 (55.4%) 404 (57.9%) 0.275
Hypertension 1554 (89.0%) 673 (96.4%) < 0.001
25-OH vitamin D [ng/ml] 15.4 [11.4;19.6] 13.8 [10.4;18.5] < 0.001
eGFR [ml/min per 1.73 m2] 31.6 [20.9;44.3] 31.7 [21.5;44.2] 0.812
Glucose [mg/dl] 92.0 [85.0;101] 133 [108;164] < 0.001
Total cholesterol [mg/dl] 177 [153;205] 171 [143;197] < 0.001
HDL cholesterol [mg/dl] 48.0 [39.0;59.0] 44.0 [36.0;53.9] < 0.001
LDL cholesterol [mg/dl] 103 [82.0;123] 92.0 [71.4;113] < 0.001
non-HDL cholesterol [mg/dl] 128 [105;153] 122 [100;148] 0.011
Triglycerides [mg/dl] 118 [89.0;162] 147 [103;205] < 0.001
hsCRP [mg/dl] 1.86 [0.90;4.17] 2.58 [1.16;5.84] < 0.001
Antidiabetic treatment    < 0.001
 Diet 166 (23.8%)  
 Oral hypoglycemic drugs 164 (23.5%)  
 Insulin treatment 368 (52.7%)  
HbA1c [g/dl] 5.40 [5.10;5.70] 6.80 [6.10;7.80] < 0.001
Albumin/creatinine ratio mg/g 89.1 [11.2;384] 149 [18.6;601] 0.001
Pulse pressure [mmHg] 56.0 [47.0;69.0] 68.0 [54.0;81.0] < 0.001
Antihypertensive treatment 1506 (86.2%) 650 (93.1%) < 0.001
Lipid-lowering drugs 975 (55.8%) 465 (66.6%) < 0.001
Number of plaques 1.00 [0.00;3.00] 3.00 [1.00;5.00] < 0.001
Presence of any plaque 1138 (65.1%) 570 (81.7%) < 0.001
Presence of carotid plaques 901 (51.6%) 502 (71.9%) < 0.001
Carotid plaque [only] 291 (16.7%) 165 (23.6%) < 0.001
Presence of femoral plaques 847 (48.5%) 405 (58.0%) < 0.001
Femoral plaque [only] 237 (13.6%) 68 (9.74%) 0.012
> 2 territories with plaque 853 (48.8%) 465 (66.6%) < 0.001
Carotid and femoral plaques 610 (34.9%) 337 (48.3%) < 0.001
Follow-up time [months] 48.4 [27.1;52.0] 48.3 [25.7;52.0] 0.675
  1. CKD chronic kidney disease, RRT renal replacement therapy, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate determined by the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study formula (MDRD-4), HDL high density lipoprotein, LDL low density lipoprotein, hsCRP high sensitivity C-reactive protein