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Table 1 Clinical characteristics according to type of stroke during follow-up

From: The role of blood pressure in risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in type 1 diabetes

Baseline data No stroke Any stroke Ischemic stroke Hemorrhagic stroke
n 3903 202 145 57
Men (%) 51 63* 63* 61
Age (years) 36.9 ± 11.8 45.8 ± 9.5* 46.6 ± 9.5* 44.4 ± 9.1*
Duration of diabetes (years) 20.0 (11.7–29.3) 31.0 (24.4–36.8)* 32.0 (25.4–37.0)* 28.6 (25.0–34.9)*
Age at stroke (years) 52.2 ± 9.8 53.1 ± 10.0 49.9 ± 8.9
Blood pressure measurements
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 133 ± 18 150 ± 23* 150 ± 23* 149 ± 23*
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 79 ± 10 83 ± 11* 83 ± 11* 83 ± 12*
 Pulse pressure (mmHg) 54 ± 16 67 ± 19* 68 ± 20* 66 ± 18*
 Mean arterial pressure (mmHg) 97 ± 11 105 ± 13 105 ± 13* 105 ± 14*
 Hypertensive (%) 32 66* 68* 60*
 24-h urinary sodium excretion (mmol/l) 140 (101–185) 145 (98–192) 149 (98–202) 138 (96–161)
 24-h urinary potassium excretion (mmol/l) 83 (62–105) 79 (59–104) 79 (56–104) 82 (61–103)
 Sodium/potassium ratio 1.74 (1.32–2.30) 1.76 (1.45–2.33) 1.81 (1.47–2.35) 1.67 (1.39–1.78)
Medication
 Antihypertensive medication (%) 36 78* 78* 77*
  ACE inhibitor (%) 24 45* 48* 38*
  Angiotensin receptor blocker (%) 5 12* 12* 11
  Calcium channel blocker (%) 11 33* 35* 27*
  β-Blocker (%) 12 38* 38* 38*
  Diuretic (%) 11 36* 36* 38*
  Other (%) 1 2* 1 4*
  1. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation, median with interquartile range, or number of cases (%)
  2. ACE inhibitor angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor
  3. *P < 0.05 compared to no stroke