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Table 1 Baseline characteristic, biochemical assessment and medication in diabetic and non-diabetic patients with poor and good collateralization

From: Lipoprotein (a) interactions with cholesterol-containing lipids on angiographic coronary collateralization in type 2 diabetic patients with chronic total occlusion

  Overall Diabetes Non-diabetes
Poor collateralization (n = 505) Good collateralization (n = 779) P value Poor collateralization (n = 323) Good collateralization (n = 383) P value Poor collateralization (n = 182) Good collateralization (n = 396) P value
Female, n (%) 137 (27.1) 120 (15.4) < 0.001 97 (30.0) 75 (19.6) 0.001 40 (22.0) 45 (11.4) 0.001
Age 66.7 ± 10.2 62.6 ± 10.4 < 0.001 66.9 ± 10.4 63.4 ± 10.3 < 0.001 66.2 ± 10.0 61.8 ± 10.4 < 0.001
BMI, kg/m2 25.2 ± 3.1 25.3 ± 3.2 0.330 25.2 ± 3.0 25.5 ± 3.3 0.358 25.0 ± 3.1 25.2 ± 3.1 0.483
Hypertension, n (%) 313 (62.0) 562 (72.1) < 0.001 202 (62.5) 285 (74.4) 0.001 111 (61.0) 277 (69.9) 0.033
Diabetes mellitus, n (%) 323 (64.0) 383 (49.2) < 0.001 323 (100.0) 383 (100.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Dyslipidemia, n (%) 137 (27.1) 110 (14.1) < 0.001 101 (31.3) 76 (19.8) < 0.001 36 (19.8) 34 (8.6) < 0.001
Smoking, n (%) 214 (42.4) 238 (30.6) < 0.001 137 (42.4) 116 (30.3) 0.001 77 (42.3) 122 (30.8) 0.007
Prior MI, n (%) 150 (29.7) 187 (24.0) 0.023 91 (28.2) 87 (22.7) 0.096 59 (32.4) 100 (25.3) 0.073
Severity of CAD, n (%)    0.801    0.439    0.384
 1-vessel 88 (17.4) 139 (17.8) 0.848 46 (14.2) 65 (17.0) 0.321 42 (23.1) 74 (18.7) 0.221
 2-vessel 152 (30.1) 221 (28.4) 0.505 94 (29.1) 98 (25.6) 0.296 58 (31.9) 123 (31.1) 0.846
 3-vessel 265 (52.5) 419 (53.8) 0.645 183 (56.7) 220 (57.4) 0.834 82 (45.1) 199 (50.3) 0.246
 Multi-vessel 417 (82.6) 640 (82.2) 0.848 277 (85.6) 318 (83.0) 0.321 140 (76.9) 322 (81.3) 0.221
SBP, mmHg 136.8 ± 22.3 138.1 ± 20.6 0.283 137.6 ± 22.5 140.2 ± 19.8 0.107 135.5 ± 22.0 136.2 ± 21.1 0.699
DBP, mmHg 78.0 ± 12.9 82.3 ± 12.4 < 0.001 78.2 ± 13.2 83.2 ± 12.4 < 0.001 77.7 ± 12.2 81.6 ± 12.3 < 0.001
FBG, mmol/L 6.09 ± 2.38 5.83 ± 2.02 0.044 6.69 ± 2.74 6.61 ± 2.54 0.693 5.03 ± 0.76 5.08 ± 0.81 0.477
HbA1c, % 6.62 ± 1.27 6.46 ± 1.35 0.027 7.07 ± 1.37 7.09 ± 1.58 0.899 5.83 ± 0.36 5.85 ± 0.66 0.697
Triglyceride, mmol/L 1.74 ± 0.94 1.76 ± 1.11 0.786 1.86 ± 1.06 1.83 ± 1.18 0.715 1.52 ± 0.61 1.69 ± 1.04 0.053
Total cholesterol, mmol/L 5.00 ± 1.02 4.64 ± 1.08 < 0.001 5.10 ± 1.00 4.77 ± 1.12 < 0.001 4.82 ± 1.03 4.51 ± 1.02 0.001
LDL-C, mmol/L 3.22 ± 0.81 2.94 ± 0.83 < 0.001 3.27 ± 0.79 3.01 ± 0.88 < 0.001 3.11 ± 0.84 2.87 ± 0.77 0.001
HDL-C, mmol/L 0.98 ± 0.24 1.01 ± 0.25 0.098 0.98 ± 0.25 0.99 ± 0.24 0.304 0.99 ± 0.24 1.02 ± 0.26 0.314
Non-HDL-C, mmol/L 4.02 ± 1.04 3.64 ± 1.08 < 0.001 4.12 ± 1.02 3.78 ± 1.11 < 0.001 3.82 ± 1.04 3.50 ± 1.03 < 0.001
Lp(a), mg/dL 23.82 (12.42–44.10) 16.87 (9.28–32.2) < 0.001 23.76 (12.97–43.48) 16.87 (9.30–31.72) < 0.001 24.09 (12.42–45.17) 16.78 (8.56–32.34) 0.001
BUN, mmol/L 5.8 ± 1.9 5.8 ± 2.0 0.730 6.0 ± 2.0 5.9 ± 2.0 0.558 5.6 ± 1.8 5.7 ± 2.0 0.465
Serum creatinine, μmol/L 88 ± 25 84 ± 29 0.007 90 ± 28 84 ± 30 0.003 86 ± 18 85 ± 28 0.723
Uric acid, μmol/L 342 ± 85 340 ± 90 0.707 340 ± 87 330 ± 89 0.129 344 ± 81 349 ± 90 < 0.001
GFR, mL/min/1.73 m2 75.4 ± 17.7 83.7 ± 19.4 < 0.001 74.1 ± 18.6 83.2 ± 19.5 < 0.001 77.7 ± 15.9 84.2 ± 19.3 0.530
hsCRP, mmol/L 4.28 (1.61–7.68) 2.72 (1.12–4.85) < 0.001 4.52 (1.74–7.89) 2.86 (1.32–5.07) < 0.001 3.20 (1.43–6.90) 2.50 (0.86–4.51) < 0.001
LVEF, % 57.4 ± 8.4 61 ± 8.2 < 0.001 57.0 ± 8.4 60.6 ± 7.5 < 0.001 58.1 ± 8.3 61.4 ± 8.7 < 0.001
Medication, n (%)
 Antiplatelet 374 (74.1) 552 (70.9) 0.212 236 (73.1) 274 (71.5) 0.652 138 (75.8) 278 (70.2) 0.162
 ACE inhibitors/ ARBs 312 (61.8) 476 (61.1) 0.807 194 (60.1) 235 (61.4) 0.725 118 (64.8) 241 (60.9) 0.360
 β-blockers 244 (48.3) 379 (48.7) 0.907 152 (47.1) 171 (44.6) 0.522 92 (50.5) 208 (52.5) 0.659
 CCBs 152 (30.1) 208 (26.7) 0.185 101 (68.7) 107 (27.9) 0.333 51 (28.0) 101 (25.5) 0.591
 Diuretics 61 (12.1) 81 (10.4) 0.348 39 (12.1) 42 (11.0) 0.645 22 (12.1) 39 (9.8) 0.416
 Nitrates 270 (53.5) 427 (54.8) 0.636 182 (56.3) 230 (60.1) 0.320 88 (48.4) 197 (49.7) 0.755
 Statins 324 (64.2) 515 (66.1) 0.473 188 (58.2) 226 (59.0) 0.829 136 (74.7) 289 (73.0) 0.659
  1. Data are mean ± SD or number (%)
  2. ACE angiotensin converting enzyme, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker, BMI body mass index, BUN blood urea nitrogen, CAD coronary artery disease, CCB calcium channel blocker, DBP diastolic blood pressure, FBG fasting blood glucose, GFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, HbA1c glycosylated hemoglobin A1c, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hsCRP high-sensitivity C reactive protein, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, Lp(a) lipoprotein a, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, MI myocardial infarction, SBP systolic blood pressure