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Table 1 Characteristics of the studies included in the present meta-analysis

From: Relationship between frailty and mortality, hospitalization, and cardiovascular diseases in diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Reference Year Region Design of study No. of patients Age (years) Women (%) Frailty measurements Frailty (%) Outcome Follow-up period (years) Effect measure Adjustment
Cacciatore et al. [25] 2013 Italy Longitudinal 188 72 67 Frailty staging system 48.4 Mortality 12 HR Age, sex, BMI, waist circumference, heart rate, pulse blood pressure, Charlson comorbility index, drugs number, GDS, CHF, PAD, and CKD
Wang et al. [26] 2014 US Longitudinal 2415 73 NR Marker for a major frailty characteristic 44 Mortality 5.6 HR Age, race, diabetes duration, age-adjusted Charlson comorbidity score, smoking cessation status, LDL levels, and HbA1c levels
Li et al. [27] 2015 China Longitudinal 146 80 32 FRAIL scale 15.1 Mortality, hospitalization 2 OR Age, sex, MMSE points, BMI, duration of diabetes, HbA1c levels, macroangiopathy, and nephropathy
Castro-Rodriguez et al. [28] 2016 Spain Longitudinal 363 76 54 Rockwood Frailty Index NR Mortality 5.5 HR Age, sex, disability, and cardiovascular disease
Chode et al. [29] 2016 US Longitudinal 215 57 69 FRAIL scale NR Mortality 9 OR age and sex
Liccini et al. [30] 2016 US Longitudinal 198 64 47.5 FRAIL scale 28.8 Mortality, hospitalization 0.5 HR; OR age, sex, education, and HbA1c levels
Chao et al. [31] 2018 Taiwan Longitudinal 560,795 56 46 FRAIL scale 0.2 Mortality, hospitalization, cardiovascular disease 3 HR Age, sex, comorbidities (including obesity, mental illnesses, and hypoglycemia history), substance use (smoking and alcohol abuse), aDCSI, and medications
Li et al. [32] 2018 Taiwan Cross-sectional 719 Aged ≥ 65 years 58 FRAIL scale 9.4 Hospitalization OR Age, sex, education, marital status, duration of diabetes, use of insulin, falls, ADL disability, and IADL disability
  1. Unless indicated otherwise, data are presented as mean values
  2. HR, hazard ratio; OR, odds ratio; BMI, body mass index; GDS, geriatric depression scale; CHF, chronic heart failure; PAD, peripheral arterial disease; CKD, chronic kidney disease; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; HbA1c, hemoglobin A1c; MMSE, Mini-Mental State Examination; aDCSI, adapted Diabetes Complications Severity Index; ADL, activity of daily living; IADL, instrumental activity of daily living