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Table 4 Factors associated with adverse CV events in a univariate Cox regression analysis

From: Duration of type 2 diabetes mellitus and systolic blood pressure as determinants of severity of coronary stenosis and adverse events in an asymptomatic diabetic population: PROCEED study

Variable Hazard ratio (95% CI) p value
Age (per 10 years) 2.45 (1.37–4.37) 0.003
Male sex 3.50 (1.01–12.1) 0.05
BMI (per 5 kg/m2) 0.83 (0.55–1.27) 0.40
Waist-to-hip ratio (per unit increase) 2.04 (1.06–3.92) 0.03
Ethnicity   0.31
 South Asian 1  
 Caucasian 1.64 (0.63–4.26)  
 African 0.45 (0.06–3.52)  
Duration of T2DM (per 5 years) 1.36 (1.05–1.75) 0.02
Microvascular disease (Yes/no) 1.14 (0.45–2.88) 0.78
Retinopathy (Yes/no) 0.84 (0.32–2.25) 0.74
Hyperlipidaemia (Yes/no) 0.53 (0.20–1.40) 0.20
Hypertension (Yes/no) 1.21 (0.40–3.66) 0.74
Current smoker (Yes/no) 0.67 (0.09–5.03) 0.70
Statin use (Yes/no) 0.57 (0.23–1.48) 0.25
Family history of premature ischaemic heart disease (Yes/no) 0.75 (0.22–2.59) 0.65
SBP (per 10 mm Hg) 1.43 (1.11–1.84) 0.006
HbA1c (per 10 mmol/mol) 1.10 (0.86–1.41) 0.44
eGFR (per 10 mL/min/1.73 m2) 0.82 (0.63–1.08) 0.17
CAC score(per log10 AU) 3.17 (1.60–6.29) 0.001
Total cholesterol (per 10 mmol/L) 0.90 (0.53–1.51) 0.69
LDL-C (per 10 mmol/L) 1.06 (0.63–1.81) 0.82
HDL-C (per 10 mmol/L) 0.47 (0.12–1.77) 0.26
Triglycerides (per 10 mmol/L) 1.03 (0.69–1.54) 0.89
Total cholesterol: HDL-C ratio 1.33 (0.91–1.95) 0.13
Antidiabetic medication   
Metformin 0.76 (0.09–5.88) 0.76
 Sulphonylurea 0.96 (0.29–3.18) 0.94
 Thiazolidinedione 22.74 (0.002–245,100) 0.51
 GLP-1 agonists 1.835 (0.24–14.21) 0.56
 DPP-4 inhibitors 2.67 (0.35–20.71) 0.35
 Insulin 1.30 (0.50–3.36) 0.58
ACEis/ARB (Yes/no) 0.6 (0.19–1.86) 0.38
Plaque variablesa
 Number of plaques 1.28 (1.13–1.45) < 0.001
 Presence of 50% plaque 8.09 (1.80–36.91) 0.007
 Number of 50% plaques 1.32 (1.18–1.46) < 0.001
  1. Italics indicate a statistically significant association between the predictor variable and adverse CV events
  2. ACEi, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; AU, Agatston Units; BMI, body mass index; CAC, coronary artery calcium; CI, confidence interval; CV, cardiovascular; DPP-4, dipeptidyl peptidase-4; GLP-1 glucagon-like peptide-1; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; SBP, systolic blood pressure; T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus
  3. aAnalysis excludes the 20 patients with CAC score > 1000 who did not undergo CTCA