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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the PROCEED study population

From: Duration of type 2 diabetes mellitus and systolic blood pressure as determinants of severity of coronary stenosis and adverse events in an asymptomatic diabetic population: PROCEED study

  Overall population, (n = 259) Subgroup with CTCA data, (n = 238)
Age, mean years (SD) 62.0 (8.5) 61.6 (8.6)
Sex, male (%) 151 (59) 133 (56)
BMI, median kg/m2 (IQR) 28.4 (25.3, 32.5) 28.6 (25.5, 32.6)
Ethnicity, n (%)
 African 34 (13) 33 (14)
 South Asian 142 (56) 127 (54)
 Caucasian 79 (31) 75 (32)
Duration of diabetes, median years (IQR) 13 (8, 19) 13 (8, 19)
Microvascular disease, n (%) 123 (48) 114 (48)
Retinopathy, n (%) 99 (38) 90 (38)
Hyperlipidaemia, n (%) 203 (78) 187 (79)
Hypertension, n (%) 192 (74) 176 (74)
Smoking, n (%) 20 (8) 19 (8)
Statin use, n (%) 188 (73) 173 (73)
Family history of premature ischaemic heart disease, n (%) 51 (20) 45 (19)
SBP, mm Hg (SD) 137.3 (15.8) 137.1 (15.7)
HbA1c, median mmol/mol (IQR) 63.0 (51.9, 77.0) 64.0 (51.9, 77.0)
eGFR, mean mL/min/1.73 m2 (SD) 80.9 ± 18.4 80.9 ± 18.8
CAC (AU), median (IQR) 109 (1, 322) 82 (0, 266)
Total cholesterol, mean mmol/L (SD) 4.05 (0.92) 4.08 (0.93)
LDL-C, mean mmol/L (SD) 2.10 (0.88) 2.12 (0.89)
HDL-C, mean mmol/L (SD) 1.29 (0.39) 1.29 (0.39)
Triglycerides, median mmol/L (IQR) 1.4 (0.9, 1.9) 1.4 (1.0, 1.9)
Total cholesterol:HDL-C ratio, mean (SD) 3.41 (1.2) 2.41 (1.2)
Medications for diabetes, n (%)   
 Metformin 232 (90) 214 (90)
 Sulphonylureas 87 (34) 78 (33)
 Thiazolidinediones 21 (8) 18 (8)
 GLP-1 agonists 36 (14) 34 (14)
 DPP-4 Inhibitors 50 (19) 47 (20)
 Insulin 139 (54) 132 (55)
ACEi/ARB 163 (63) 149 (62)
  1. ACEi, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin receptor blocker; AU, Agatston Units; BMI, body mass index; CAC, coronary artery calcium; CAD, coronary artery disease; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HbA1c, glycated haemoglobin; HDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; IQR, interquartile range; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol; SD standard deviation