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Table 1 Comparison of patient characteristics in relation to citrullinated histone 3 (H3Cit) and cell-free deoxyribonucleic acid (cfDNA)

From: Predictors of neutrophil extracellular traps markers in type 2 diabetes mellitus: associations with a prothrombotic state and hypofibrinolysis

Variable Patients with H3Cit ≥ 7.36 ng/mL (n = 28) Patients without H3Cit < 7.36 ng/mL (n = 84*) p-value Patients with cfDNA ≥ 2.84 µg/mL (n = 28) Patients with cfDNA < 2.84 µg/mL (n = 84*) p-value
Demographic data
 Age, years 64.6 ± 7.1 63.5 ± 8.6 0.52 63.1 ± 7.4 64.0 ± 8.5 0.63
 Male gender, n (%) 11 (39.3) 47 (55.9) 0.12 13 (46.4) 45 (53.6) 0.51
 BMI, kg/m2 30.5 (27.4–37.8) 32.5 (29.6–36.8) 0.11 32.1 (29.5–37.7) 32.0 (29.1–36.2) 0.61
Type 2 diabetes data
 HbA1c, % 7.55 (6.23–8.58) 6.80 (6.00–8.20) 0.18 7.80 (6.73–8.90) 6.70 (6.00–8.00) 0.006
 HbA1c, mmol/mol 57.0 (43.0–69.4) 51.0 (42.0–66.1) 0.29 61.0 (50.0–70.5) 50.0 (41.0–64.0) 0.010
 Time since type 2 diabetes diagnosis, years 7.5 (5.0–17.5) 7.0 (2.3–12.8) 0.16 7.0 (5.0–18.5) 7.0 (2.5–12.0) 0.19
Comorbidities, n (%)
 Current or former smoking 14 (50.0) 48 (56.5) 0.66 13 (46.4) 49 (57.6) 0.38
 Arterial hypertension 27 (96.4) 77 (91.7) 0.68 27 (96.4) 77 (91.7) 0.68
 Cardiovascular disease 16 (57.1) 36 (42.9) 0.19 15 (53.6) 37 (44.1) 0.38
 Previous myocardial infarction 11 (39.3) 9 (10.7) < 0.001 10 (35.7) 11 (12.9) 0.004
 Family history of cardiovascular disease 9 (32.1) 21 (25.0) 0.46 4 (14.3) 26 (31.0) 0.63
 Heart failure 4 (14.3) 4 (4.8) 0.11 3 (10.7) 5 (6.0) 0.41
 GFR ≤ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 4 (14.3) 12 (14.5) 1.0 6 (21.4) 10 (12.1) 0.22
 ACR ≥ 30 mg/g creatinine 6 (21.4) 15 (17.9) 0.74 3 (10.7) 18 (21.2) 0.18
Medication, n (%)
 Aspirin 18 (64.3) 55 (65.5) 0.91 19 (67.9) 54 (64.3) 0.73
 Clopidogrel 4 (14.3) 5 (5.9) 0.22 4 (14.3) 5 (5.9) 0.22
 β-blocker 20 (71.4) 61 (72.6) 0.90 21 (75.0) 60 (71.4) 0.71
 Statin 19 (67.9) 55 (65.5) 0.82 19 (67.9) 55 (65.5) 0.81
 ACEI 16 (57.1) 46 (54.8) 0.83 18 (64.3) 44 (52.3) 0.27
 Angiotensin receptor blocker 11 (39.3) 24 (28.6) 0.29 8 (28.6) 27 (32.1) 0.72
 Calcium antagonist 15 (53.6) 33 (39.3) 0.19 13 (46.4) 35 (41.7) 0.66
 Thiazide diuretics 10 (35.7) 26 (30.9) 0.64 9 (32.1) 27 (32.1) 1.0
 Indapamide 5 (17.9) 21 (25.0) 0.44 5 (17.9) 21 (25.0) 0.44
 Loop diuretics 7 (25.0) 14 (16.7) 0.33 7 (25.0) 14 (16.7) 0.33
Hypoglycemic treatment, n (%)
 No hypoglycemic drugs 0 (0) 8 (9.5) 0.20 1 (3.6) 7 (8.3) 0.68
 Oral drug 16 (57.1) 44 (52.4) 0.39 15 (53.5) 45 (53.6) 0.78
 Insulin 3 (10.8) 9 (10.7) 0.66 3 (10.8) 9 (10.7) 0.66
 Insulin and oral drug 9 (32.1) 23 (27.4) 0.63 9 (32.1) 23 (27.4) 0.64
Laboratory investigations
 White blood cells count, × 106/L 6.77 (5.72–8.87) 7.32 (6.45–8.49) 0.36 6.72 (5.78–8.17) 7.32 (6.45–8.54) 0.19
 Hemoglobin, g/dL 13.4 (12.5–14.2) 13.9 (13.0–14.7) 0.03 13.4 (12.5–14.0) 14.0 (130–14.8) 0.014
 Platelet count, × 109/L 227.5 (198–270) 230.0 (185–272) 0.94 2167 (191–251) 232 (186–278) 0.42
 Fasting glucose, mmol/L 7.40 (6.63–8.80) 7.14 (5.82–8.44) 0.28 8.07 (7.05–11.11) 6.70 (5.80–7.90) < 0.001
 GFR, mL/min/m2 86.5 (73.0–92.5) 82.0 (68.5–92.0) 0.42 80.5 (67.0–92.0) 84.5 (71.0–92.5) 0.17
 Alanine aminotransferase, U/L 24.0 (18.0–37.5) 26.5 (21.0–40.8) 0.30 27.5 (20.0–39.0) 26.0 (20.0–40.0) 0.58
 Total cholesterol, mmol/L 3.94 (3.45–5.48) 4.26 (3.50–5.27) 0.79 4.09 (3.76–5.12) 4.23 (3.40–5.50) 0.85
 LDL-cholesterol, mmol/L 2.29 (1.75–3.81) 2.54 (1.17–3.43) 0.80 2.40 (1.76–3.41) 2.57 (1.80–3.57) 0.39
 HDL-cholesterol, mmol/L 1.35 (1.09–1.49) 1.14 (0.98–1.45) 0.11 1.22 (1.00–1.45) 1.15 (1.03–1.48) 0.76
 Triglycerides, mmol/L 1.49 (1.06–1.87) 1.54 (1.19–2.10) 0.29 1.74 (1.26–5.62) 1.48 (1.16–1.89) 0.12
 C-reactive protein, mg/L 2.90 (1.09–4.75) 2.33 (1.20–5.14) 0.94 3.43 (1.26–5.62) 2.33 (1.11–4.22) 0.26
  1. Values are given as mean ± SD or median (interquartile range)
  2. BMI, body mass index; HbA1c, glycated hemoglobin; GFR, glomerular filtration rate; ACR, albumin-to-creatinine ratio; ACEI, angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; HDL, high-density lipoprotein
  3. * Data on H3Cit and cfDNA levels were missing for one patient