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Fig. 4 | Cardiovascular Diabetology

Fig. 4

From: The sodium–glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor empagliflozin attenuates cardiac fibrosis and improves ventricular hemodynamics in hypertensive heart failure rats

Fig. 4

Empagliflozin restored HFD-induced systolic dysfunction in SHR rats. a Representative P–V loops at different preloads in WKY, SHR, and EMPA rats. b Comparison of the mean end-systolic volume (Ves), end-diastolic volume (Ved), end-systolic pressure (Pes), and end-diastolic pressure (Ped) in the 3 rat models. c Comparison of the maximal velocity of pressure rise (+ dP/dt) and fall (− dP/dt) in the 3 rat models. d Comparison of the mean arterial elastance. (Ea) and the time constant of isovolumic pressure decay (tau) in the 3 rat models. e Mean slopes of the ESPVR and the EDPVR are shown for the 3 rat models. For the quantitative analyses, n = 5 per group. *P < 0.05, ***P < 0.01 vs WKY rats; #P < 0.05 vs SHR rats

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