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Table 2 Urine parameters of Zucker Lean Control (ZLC) and Zucker Obese (ZO) rats after 9 weeks of treatment

From: The combination of a neprilysin inhibitor (sacubitril) and angiotensin-II receptor blocker (valsartan) attenuates glomerular and tubular injury in the Zucker Obese rat

Parameter ZLC (6) ZOC (10) ZOSV (10) ZOV (10) ZOH (9)
Proteinuria (mg mgCr−1) 4.3 ± 1.4 16.7 ± 3.0* 8.9 ± 1.5ab§ 11.6 ± 2.8§ 21.4 ± 4.2*
Creatinine (mg dL−1) 335 ± 65 174 ± 16* 184 ± 20* 167 ± 16* 148 ± 13*
Protein (mg dL−1) 1061 ± 314 2808 ± 446* 1632 ± 304†§ 1889 ± 392 2986 ± 510*
Urine volume (mL) 7.7 ± 0.9 17.0 ± 3.5 16.8 ± 3.4 17.9 ± 2.9 17.4 ± 2.1
Protein excretion (mg day−1) 91 ± 0 396 ± 6* 203 ± 59†§ 301 ± 62§ 489 ± 83*
Albuminuria (mg gCr−1) 29.9 ± 8.6 43.2 ± 6.3 33.6 ± 7.5 46.1 ± 6.8 62.7 ± 13.4
Sodium excretion (mmol day−1 g BW−1) 1.37 ± 0.16 2.04 ± 0.41 2.11 ± 0.46 2.40 ± 0.34a 2.67 ± 0.20a
β-NAG (U mgCr−1) 0.020 ± 0.002 0.042 ± 0.007* 0.038 ± 0.004a 0.038 ± 0.003a 0.061 ± 0.008*
GGT (U mgCr−1) 0.05 ± 0.1 0.31 ± 0.1a 0.27 ± 0.1 0.23 ± 0.1 0.21 ± 0.2
IP-10 (pg mgCr−1) 0.85 ± 0.11 1.26 ± 0.22 1.35 ± 0.15 1.10 ± 0.20 1.06 ± 0.15
Calbindin (ng mgCr−1) 0.25 ± 0.03 0.35 ± 0.07 0.29 ± 0.07 0.38 ± 0.06 0.26 ± 0.04
Clusterin (ng mgCr−1) 1.54 ± 0.24 4.70 ± 0.49* 3.15 ± 0.37* 3.62 ± 0.34* 3.74 ± 0.27*
KIM-1 (ng mgCr−1) 0.006 ± 0.002 0.021 ± 0.003* 0.013 ± 0.002 0.015 ± 0.003* 0.021 ± 0.004*
TIMP-1 (ng mgCr−1) 0.16 ± 0.08 0.57 ± 0.15a 0.36 ± 0.10 0.37 ± 0.08 0.43 ± 0.12
VEGF (ng mgCr−1) 0.010 ± 0.00 0.015 ± 0.00 0.012 ± 0.00 0.015 ± 0.00 0.011 ± 0.00
  1. ZOC, ZO control; ZOSV, ZO treated with Sac/val; ZOV, ZO treated with valsartan; ZOH, ZO treated with hydralazine; β-NAG, N-acetyl-β-glucosaminadase; GGT, γ-glutamyl transferase; IP-10, interferon gamma (IFN-γ)-inducible protein; KIM-1, kidney injury molecule-1; TIMP-1, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1; VEGF, vascular endothelial growth factor
  2. Sac/val (ZOSV) prevents proteinuria and improves select urine markers of kidney injury, including clusterin and KIM-1. Values are mean ± SE, n = 6–10 (sample sizes shown in parentheses). ANOVA post hoc comparisons: * P < 0.05 versus ZLC;  P < 0.05 versus ZOC; § P < 0.05 versus ZOH. Two-tailed t-tests; a P < 0.05 versus ZLC; b P < 0.05 versus ZOC