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Table 2 Drug treatment by class (overall study population and according to presence/absence of CKD)

From: Patient and disease characteristics of type-2 diabetes patients with or without chronic kidney disease: an analysis of the German DPV and DIVE databases

  Total T2DM T2DM + CKDa T2DM − CKDa p-value
(n = 343,675) (n = 171,930) (n = 171,745)
Antidiabetic drugs
 Metformin in % 37.9 28.6 47.2 < 0.001
 Sulfonylurea in % 11.4 11.2 11.7 < 0.001
 Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors in % 1.2 1.3 1.1 < 0.001
 DPP-4 inhibitors in % 14.7 14.5 14.9 0.004
 Glinides in % 3.5 3.9 3.0 < 0.001
 SGLT-2 inhibitors in % 2.6 2.0 3.2 < 0.001
 GLP-1 RA in % 3.0 2.4 3.6 < 0.001
 Glitazones in % 1.1 1.0 1.2 < 0.001
 Short-acting insulin in % 44.0 51.4 36.7 < 0.001
 Long-acting insulin in % 46.3 53.5 39.1 < 0.001
 ≥ 2 antidiabetic drugs in % 18.0 15.0 21.0 < 0.001
Antihypertensive drugs
 Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in % 31.2 33.8 28.6 < 0.001
 Angiotensin receptor blockers in % 12.3 14.2 10.3 < 0.001
 Beta-blockers in % 31.3 36.7 25.8 < 0.001
 Calcium channel blockers in % 16.2 19.5 12.9 < 0.001
 Diuretics in % 31.6 40.2 23.1 < 0.001
 ≥ 2 antihypertensive drugs in % 39.9 47.3 32.5 < 0.001
  1. Percent (%)
  2. CKD chronic kidney disease, DPP-4 dipeptidyl peptidase-4, GLP-1 RA glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, SGLT-2 sodium–glucose co-transporter-2, T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus
  3. aDefined as eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 OR eGFR ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and albuminuria (≥ 30 mg/g)