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Table 1 Patient characteristics (overall study population and according to presence/absence of CKD)

From: Patient and disease characteristics of type-2 diabetes patients with or without chronic kidney disease: an analysis of the German DPV and DIVE databases

  n Total T2DM T2DM + CKDb T2DM − CKDb p-value
(n = 343,675) (n = 171,930) (n = 171,745)
Healthcare provider
 Office based in % 343,675 35.9 31.5 40.3 < 0.001
 Hospital based in % 343,675 64.1 68.5 59.7 < 0.001
Age in years 343,675 70.3 (60.4; 78.0) 74.5 (66.2;80.7) 65.5 (56.2; 74.1) < 0.001
Female gender in % 343,675 47.2 52.4 42.0 < 0.001
Weight in kg 321,929 85.5 (74.0; 100.0) 84.7 (73.0; 98.3) 87.0 (75.0; 101.0) < 0.001
Body mass index in kg/m2 314,804 29.9 (26.3; 34.4) 29.9 (26.3; 34.4) 29.9 (26.4; 34.4) 0.027
Blood pressure
 Systolic BP in mmHg 330,285 132.5 (121.0; 145.0) 132.5 (120.0; 145.0) 132.5 (122.0; 144.0) 0.007
  Systolic BP ≥ 140 mmHg in % 330,285 41.5 41.7 41.4 < 0.001
 Diastolic BP in mmHg 329,769 80.0 (70.0; 81.0) 78.0 (70.0; 80.0) 80.0 (70.0; 83.0) < 0.001
  Diastolic BP ≥ 90 mmHg in % 329,769 14.0 12.2 15.9 < 0.001
 AntiHT drug treatment in % 343,675 56.7 62.6 20.7 < 0.001
 Hypertensiona in % 335,762 75.7 79.4 72.0 < 0.001
Dyslipidemia 285,009 87.4 88.4 86.3 < 0.001
 LDL-C in mg/dL 236,106 108.3 (83.0, 137.0) 105.0 (79.3; 135.0) 112.1 (86.8; 139.2) < 0.001
 TC in mg/dL 263,462 185.6 (154.7; 218.5) 181.8 (150.8; 216.0) 189.0 (159.0; 220.4) < 0.001
 TG in mg/dL 254,288 155.0 (110.0; 223.7) 157.9 (113.0; 228.1) 151.0 (107.0; 219.3) < 0.001
 HDL-C in men in mg/dL 128,099 41.0 (34.0; 50.0) 40.0 (33.0; 48.5) 42.0 (34.8; 50.3) < 0.001
 HDL-C in women in mg/dL 110,834 46.4 (37.5; 58.0) 46.4 (37.5; 57.0) 50.0 (41.0; 60.0) < 0.001
Diabetes
 Diabetes duration in years 343,675 9.0 (3.5, 15.4) 10.3 (4.9; 17.2) 7.2 (2.4; 13.4) < 0.001
  0–5 years in % 343,675 32.3 25.5 39.1 < 0.001
  6–10 years in % 343,675 22.7 22.2 23.2 < 0.001
  > 10 years in % 343,675 45.0 52.3 37.8 < 0.001
 HbA1c in % 325,058 7.1 (6.3; 8.4) 7.2 (6.3; 8.3) 7.1 (6.3; 8.4) < 0.001
  HbA1c < 6.5% 325,058 31.6 30.5 32.7 < 0.001
  HbA1c < 7.0% 325,058 46.5 45.8 47.3 < 0.001
Kidney parameters
 Potassium
  ≤ 4.8 mmol/L in % 73,615 85.4 81.8 89.8 < 0.001
  > 4.8– ≤ 5.5 mmol/L in % 73,615 12.2 14.6 9.3 < 0.001
  > 5.5– ≤ 6.0 mmol/L in % 73,615 1.6 2.4 0.7 < 0.001
  > 6.0 mmol/L in % 73,615 0.8 1.3 0.3 < 0.001
 Urinary albumin in mg/g
  Normal (< 30 mg/g) in % 240,510 71.9 48.8 100.0 < 0.0001
  Micro (≥ 30–300 mg/g) in % 240,510 22.5 40.8 0.0 < 0.001
  Macro (> 300 mg/g) in % 204,211 5.6 10.4 0.0 < 0.001
 Creatinine in mg/dL 343,513 1.0 (0.8; 1.3) 1.3 (1.0; 1.6) 0.8 (0.7; 1.0) < 0.001
 eGFR mL/min/1.73 m2 343,675 67.9 (48.9; 85.9) 48.9 (36.3; 59.0) 81.6 (71.0; 96.5) < 0.001
  < 15 343,675 1.5 3.0 0.0 < 0.001
  15 to < 30 in % 343,675 6.3 12.6 0.0 < 0.001
  30 to < 45 in % 343,675 13.0 25.9 0.0 < 0.001
  45 to < 60 in % 343,675 18.3 36.6 0.0 < 0.001
  60 to < 89 in % 343,675 40.2 14.1 66.3 < 0.001
  ≥ 90 in % 343,675 20.8 7.9 33.7 < 0.001
  1. Median (Q1; Q3) or percent (%)
  2. AntiHT antihypertensive, BP blood pressure, CKD chronic kidney disease, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, TC total cholesterol, TG triglycerides, T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus
  3. aDefined as either systolic BP ≥ 140 mmHg OR diastolic BP ≥ 90 mmHg OR on antihypertensive drug treatment
  4. Bdefined as eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 OR eGFR ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and albuminuria (≥ 30 mg/g)