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Table 1 Relative risks of CVD and ESRD in SU group vs. DPP4i group (1st cohort)

From: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor compared with sulfonylurea in combination with metformin: cardiovascular and renal outcomes in a propensity-matched cohort study

Study outcomes Total History of baseline CVD No history of baseline CVD
SU + MET (n = 4684) DPP4i + MET (n = 9368) P-value SU + MET (n = 2025) DPP4i + MET (n = 4050) P-value SU + MET (n = 2659) DPP4i + MET (n = 5318) P-value
Composite CVD eventsa
 N. of events 300 462   247 361   53 101  
 Cumulative incidence at 3 years (%)b 8.06 (7.14–9.10) 8.01 (7.23–8.87)   15.23 (13.39–17.28) 14.08 (12.60–15.73)   2.36 (1.75–3.19) 3.36 (2.68–4.21)  
 HR (95% CI) at 3 yearsc 1.00 1.02 (0.88–1.19) 0.7702 1.00 0.99 (0.83–1.174) 0.8657 1.00 1.32 (0.92–1.90) 0.1370
 Cumulative incidence at 5 years (%)b 11.33 (9.90–12.95) 13.73 (10.96–17.13)   20.07 (17.59–22.86) 24.15 (18.72–30.83)   4.20 (2.84–6.19) 5.07 (3.84–6.67)  
 HR (95% CI) at 5 yearsc 1.00 1.04 (0.90–1.20) 0.6209 1.00 1.01 (0.86–1.18) 0.9309 1.00 1.29 (0.92–1.81) 0.1357
IHD
 N. of events 144 215   120 163   24 52  
 Cumulative incidence at 3 years (%)b 4.05 (3.38–4.83) 3.79 (3.25–4.41)   7.93 (6.54–9.59) 6.66 (5.61–7.90)   1.07 (0.68–1.66) 1.66 (1.20–2.28)  
 HR (95% CI) at 3 yearsc 1.00 0.99 (0.80–1.24) 0.9490 1.00 0.93 (0.73–1.19) 0.5846 1.00 1.39 (0.82–2.35) 0.2193
 Cumulative incidence at 5 years (%)b 5.53 (4.56–6.70) 5.39 (4.49–6.45)   10.37 (8.54–12.57) 8.72 (7.23–10.51)   1.76 (0.99–3.12) 2.87 (1.91–4.32)  
 HR (95% CI) at 5 yearsc 1.00 1.00 (0.81–1.23) 0.9713 1.00 0.93 (0.73–1.17) 0.5183 1.00 1.45 (0.89–2.35) 0.1350
IS
 N. of events 99 137   77 111   22 26  
 Cumulative incidence at 3 years (%)b 2.62 (2.11–3.25) 2.38 (1.96–2.90)   4.47 (3.70–5.96) 4.39 (3.55–5.44)   0.99 (0.61–1.61) 0.85 (0.53–1.34)  
 HR (95% CI) at 3 yearsc 1.00 0.89 (0.68–1.17) 0.4095 1.00 0.93 (0.68–1.25) 0.6102 1.00 0.81 (0.44–1.51) 0.5125
 Cumulative incidence at 5 years (%)b 3.80 (2.97–4.87) 4.77 (3.11–7.30)   6.16 (4.82–7.85) 9.02 (5.48–14.64)   1.96 (1.04–3.66) 1.38 (0.81–2.32)  
HR (95% CI) at 5 yearsc 1.00 0.95 (0.74–1.23) 0.6956 1.00 0.98 (0.74–1.31) 0.9070 1.00 0.80 (0.45–1.42) 0.4407
HHF
 N. of events 65 128   56 103   9 25  
 Cumulative incidence at 3 years (%)b 1.63 (1.23–2.17) 2.26 (1.85–2.74)   3.34 (2.48–4.48) 3.98 (3.20–4.93)   0.28 (0.12–0.68) 0.95 (0.62–1.47)  
 HR (95% CI) at 3 yearsc 1.00 1.47 (1.07–2.04) 0.0186 1.00 1.30 (0.92–1.84) 0.1425 1.00 3.32 (1.28–8.62) 0.0139
 Cumulative incidence at 5 years (%)b 2.90 (2.16–3.89) 4.43 (2.55–7.66)   5.29 (3.87–7.21) 8.63 (4.74–15.43)   0.94 (0.44–1.99) 0.95 (0.62–1.47)  
 HR (95% CI) at 5 yearsc 1.00 1.34 (1.00–1.81) 0.0495 1.00 1.26 (0.91–1.74) 0.1717 1.00 1.91 (0.93–3.93) 0.0777
CVD death
 N. of events 35 36   31 29   4 7  
 Cumulative incidence at 3 years (%)b 0.90 (0.62–1.31) 0.60 (0.41–0.88)   1.86 (1.26–2.75) 1.13 (0.74–1.73)   0.14 (0.04–0.44) 0.20 (0.09–0.47)  
 HR (95% CI) at 3 yearsc 1.00 0.68 (0.41–1.14) 0.1443 1.00 0.62 (0.36–1.09) 0.0983 1.00 1.25 (0.30–5.10) 0.7595
 Cumulative incidence at 5 years (%)b 1.45 (0.98–2.13) 1.24 (0.76–2.04)   2.85 (1.91–4.24) 2.41 (1.39–4.14)   0.29 (0.09–0.94) 0.30 (0.13–0.70)  
 HR (95% CI) at 5 yearsc 1.00 0.74 (0.46–1.18) 0.2023 1.00 0.67 (0.40–1.12) 0.1281 1.00 1.17 (0.34–4.02) 0.8079
  1. All of cardiovascular and renal outcomes were assessed using a Cox proportional hazards models comparing dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 inhibitor with sulfonylurea in combination with metformin after propensity score matching (PMS). PSM was performed by an optimal 2:1 (case: control) matching within a radius of 0.01
  2. CVD, cardiocerebrovascular disease; DPP-4 inhibitor, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor; N, number; HR, hazard ratio; CI confidence interval; IHD, ischemic heart disease, IS, ischemic stroke, HHF, hospitalization for heart failure; and ESRD, end-stage renal disease
  3. aAny occurrence of IHD, IS, HF, or CVD death
  4. bCumulative incidence was calculated based on Kaplan–Meier estimation
  5. cP-value by cox proportional regression model for clustered data
  6. dAdjusted for creatinine
Study outcomes Total History of baseline CVD No history of baseline CVD
SU + MET (n = 4060) DPP4i + MET (n = 7618) P-value SU + MET (n = 1672) DPP4i + MET (n = 3143) P-value SU + MET (n = 2388) DPP4i + MET (n = 4475) P-value
ESRD eventsd
 N. of events 7 10   5 5   2 5  
 Cumulative incidence at 3 years (%)b 0.21 (0.08–0.52) 0.20 (0.10–0.39)   0.28 (0.08–0.92) 0.25 (0.10–0.61)   0.16 (0.04–0.64) 0.16 (0.06–0.45)  
 HR (95% CI) at 3 yearsc 1.00 1.23 (0.42–3.62) 0.7082 1.00 1.28 (0.32–5.17) 0.7253 1.00 1.41 (0.27–7.41) 0.6860
 Cumulative incidence at 5 years (%)b 0.48 (0.19–1.23) 0.26 (0.13–0.52)   0.87 (0.29–2.59) 0.25 (0.10–0.61)   0.16 (0.04–0.64) 0.27 (0.10–0.73)  
 HR (95% CI) at 5 yearsc 1.00 1.02 (0.40–2.63) 0.9368 1.00 0.91 (0.28–2.93) 0.8686 1.00 1.80 (0.36–9.13) 0.4765
  1. All of cardiovascular and renal outcomes were assessed using a Cox proportional hazards models comparing dipeptidyl-peptidase 4 inhibitor with sulfonylurea in combination with metformin after propensity score matching (PMS). PSM was performed by an optimal 2:1 (case: control) matching within a radius of 0.01
  2. CVD, cardiocerebrovascular disease; DPP-4 inhibitor, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor; N, number; HR, hazard ratio; CI confidence interval; IHD, ischemic heart disease, IS, ischemic stroke, HHF, hospitalization for heart failure; and ESRD, end-stage renal disease
  3. aAny occurrence of IHD, IS, HF, or CVD death
  4. bCumulative incidence was calculated based on Kaplan–Meier estimation
  5. cP-value by cox proportional regression model for clustered data
  6. dAdjusted for creatinine