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Table 4 Improvements in risk prediction after adding carotid atherosclerosis parameters to a standard risk factor model

From: Prognostic impact of carotid intima-media thickness and carotid plaques on the development of micro- and macrovascular complications in individuals with type 2 diabetes: the Rio de Janeiro type 2 diabetes cohort study

Outcomes C-statistic Integrated discrimination improvement index
Carotid atherosclerosis parameters AUC standard modela Improvement in AUC p-value Absolute Relative (%) p-value
Total cardiovascular events 0.769      
 CCA-IMT (continuous)   0.00002 (− 0.009 to 0.009) 0.99 0.008 (− 0.001 to 0.017) 5.4 0.082
 CB-IMT (continuous)   0.006 (− 0.005 to 0.018) 0.27 0.009 (− 0.001 to 0.018) 6.6 0.069
 ICA-IMT (continuous)   0.006 (− 0.006 to 0.017) 0.33 0.005 (− 0.005 to 0.016) 3.6 0.32
 CCA-IMT (tertiles)   0.003 (− 0.009 to 0.014) 0.67 0.009 (0.002 to 0.016) 5.5 0.016
 CB-IMT (tertiles)   0.009 (− 0.006 to 0.024) 0.25 0.011 (0.001 to 0.022) 8.4 0.036
 ICA-IMT (tertiles)   0.003 (− 0.006 to 0.013) 0.48 0.001 (− 0.006 to 0.008) 1.2 0.72
 CCA-IMT (> 1.0 mm)   0.0001 (− 0.004 to 0.004) 0.98 0.002 (− 0.001 to 0.004) 1.2 0.18
 CB-IMT (> 1.2 mm)   0.007 (− 0.007 to 0.021) 0.33 0.010 (0 to 0.020) 7.8 0.050
 ICA-IMT (> 0.8 mm)   0.009 (− 0.007 to 0.024) 0.29 0.008 (− 0.003 to 0.018) 5.4 0.17
 Carotid plaque score (≥ 3 points)   0.009 (− 0.006 to 0.023) 0.24 0.014 (0.001 to 0.027) 7.8 0.040
Renal composite 0.644      
 ICA-IMT (continuous)   0.018 (− 0.007 to 0.042) 0.16 0.010 (− 0.001 to 0.020) 18.5 0.070
 ICA-IMT (tertiles)   0.009 (− 0.007 to 0.026) 0.27 0.002 (− 0.004 to 0.008) 1.9 0.57
 ICA-IMT (> 0.8 mm)   0.022 (− 0.006 to 0.049) 0.12 0.010 (− 0.001 to 0.020) 14.8 0.071
 Carotid plaque score (≥ 3 points)   0.014 (− 0.010 to 0.038) 0.24 0.010 (0.0001 to 0.019) 17.9 0.049
  1. Values in parenthesis are 95% confidence intervals
  2. AUC area under curve, CCA-IMT common carotid artery intima-media thickness, CB-IMT carotid bifurcation intima-media thickness, ICA-IMT internal carotid artery intima-media thickness
  3. aThe standard risk model: age, sex, BMI, smoking, physical activity, diabetes duration, diabetes and anti-hypertensive treatment, mean clinic SBP, presence of micro- and macrovascular complications at baseline (diabetic nephropathy for renal outcomes), serum mean 1st-year HbA1c, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol