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Table 3 Results of multivariate analyses for the risks associations between baseline early carotid atherosclerosis parameters and incident cardiovascular and renal events and mortality outcomes during follow-up

From: Prognostic impact of carotid intima-media thickness and carotid plaques on the development of micro- and macrovascular complications in individuals with type 2 diabetes: the Rio de Janeiro type 2 diabetes cohort study

Outcomes Age and sex adjusted Multivariate adjusteda
Carotid atherosclerosis parameters HR (95% CI) p-value HR (95% CI) p-value
Total cardiovascular events (n = 116)
 CCA-IMT (0.1 mm increment) 1.30 (1.15–1.46) < 0.001 1.15 (1.02–1.31) 0.024
 CB-IMT (0.1 mm increment) 1.31 (1.14–1.51) < 0.001 1.15 (1.00–1.33) 0.058
 ICA-IMT (0.1 mm increment) 1.31 (1.14–1.51) < 0.001 1.18 (1.02–1.37) 0.023
 CCA-IMT (highest vs. lowest tertile) 2.89 (1.64–5.10) < 0.001 1.83 (1.01–3.32) 0.045
 CB-IMT (highest vs. lowest tertile) 2.75 (1.59–4.75) < 0.001 1.83 (1.03–3.23) 0.039
 ICA-IMT (highest vs. lowest tertile) 2.13 (1.24–3.65) 0.006 1.53 (0.88–2.67) 0.13
 CCA-IMT (> 1.0 mm) 1.54 (1.02–2.32) 0.041 1.22 (0.80–1.86) 0.36
 CB-IMT (> 1.2 mm) 2.25 (1.41–3.60) 0.001 1.72 (1.05–2.80) 0.030
 ICA-IMT (> 0.8 mm) 2.12 (1.38–3.25) 0.001 1.70 (1.09–2.66) 0.020
 Carotid plaque score (≥ 3 points) 2.27 (1.51–3.43) < 0.001 1.51 (0.97–2.33) 0.065
All-cause mortality (n = 115)
 CCA-IMT (0.1 mm increment) 1.16 (1.02–1.32) 0.024 1.05 (0.92–1.20) 0.47
 CB-IMT (0.1 mm increment) 1.07 (0.93–1.24) 0.36 0.97 (0.83–1.13) 0.65
 ICA-IMT (0.1 mm increment) 1.07 (0.94–1.22) 0.32 1.02 (0.89–1.17) 0.79
 CCA-IMT (highest vs. lowest tertile) 1.36 (0.81–2.29) 0.24 0.96 (0.56–1.63) 0.87
 CB-IMT (highest vs. lowest tertile) 1.26 (0.77–2.04) 0.36 0.95 (0.57–1.59) 0.85
 ICA-IMT (highest vs. lowest tertile) 1.16 (0.72–1.89) 0.54 1.05 (0.63–1.74) 0.86
 CCA-IMT (> 1.0 mm) 1.25 (0.83–1.88) 0.28 1.08 (0.71–1.63) 0.72
 CB-IMT (> 1.2 mm) 1.23 (0.80–1.88) 0.34 0.98 (0.63–1.53) 0.92
 ICA-IMT (> 0.8 mm) 1.08 (0.73–1.60) 0.69 0.98 (0.65–1.48) 0.92
 Carotid plaque score (≥ 3 points) 1.95 (1.30–2.91) 0.001 1.39 (0.90–2.14) 0.14
Renal composite outcome (n = 156)
 CCA-IMT (0.1 mm increment) 1.17 (1.05–1.30) 0.005 1.11 (0.99–1.25) 0.069
 CB-IMT (0.1 mm increment) 1.16 (1.03–1.30) 0.013 1.12 (0.99–1.27) 0.066
 ICA-IMT (0.1 mm increment) 1.18 (1.06–1.32) 0.003 1.15 (1.01–1.29) 0.028
 CCA-IMT (highest vs. lowest tertile) 1.48 (0.94–2.31) 0.088 1.16 (0.72–1.65) 0.71
 CB-IMT (highest vs. lowest tertile) 1.55 (1.03–2.35) 0.037 1.38 (0.89–2.14) 0.15
 ICA-IMT (highest vs. lowest tertile) 1.41 (0.92–2.16) 0.12 1.16 (0.74–1.82) 0.52
 CCA-IMT (> 1.0 mm) 1.37 (0.98–1.94) 0.069 1.22 (0.85–1.74) 0.28
 CB-IMT (> 1.2 mm) 1.31 (0.92–1.85) 0.13 1.22 (0.84–1.76) 0.29
 ICA-IMT (> 0.8 mm) 1.69 (1.20–2.39) 0.003 1.55 (1.08–2.23) 0.016
 Carotid plaque score (≥ 3 points) 1.68 (1.15–2.46) 0.007 1.63 (1.09–2.43) 0.017
  1. Values are hazard ratios and their 95% confidence intervals
  2. HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, CCA-IMT common carotid artery intima-media thickness, CB-IMT carotid bifurcation intima-media thickness, ICA-IMT internal carotid artery intima-media thickness
  3. aAdjusted for age, sex, BMI, smoking status, physical activity, diabetes duration, mean clinic systolic blood pressure during the 1st year of follow-up, number of anti-hypertensive drugs in use, presence of micro- and macrovascular complications at baseline (in analyses of renal outcomes, presence of diabetic nephropathy was added), mean HbA1c, HDL- and LDL-cholesterol during the 1st year of follow-up, and use of insulin and statins