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Table 1 Baseline characteristics and endpoints incidence of all diabetic patients and divided into tertiles of common carotid artery intima-media thickness

From: Prognostic impact of carotid intima-media thickness and carotid plaques on the development of micro- and macrovascular complications in individuals with type 2 diabetes: the Rio de Janeiro type 2 diabetes cohort study

Characteristics All patients (n = 478) 1st-tertile CCA-IMT ≤ 0.95 mm (n = 149) 2nd-tertile CCA-IMT 1.00–1.10 mm (n = 186) 3rd-tertile CCA-IMT ≥ 1.15 mm (n = 143) p-value
Age (years) 60.0 (9.1) 55.3 (9.4) 60.7 (8.5) 63.8 (7.3) < 0.001
Male sex (%) 36.0 27.5 37.1 43.4 0.017
Body mass index (kg/m2) 29.5 (4.8) 29.7 (5.1) 29.8 (4.7) 29.0 (4.8) 0.23
Smoking, current/past (%) 44.2 38.9 40.5 54.5 0.012
Physical activity (% active) 22.1 24.2 23.1 23.2 0.91
Diabetes duration (years) 8 (3–15) 6 (3–15) 8 (4–16) 10 (4–15) 0.12
Chronic diabetic complications (%)
 Cerebrovascular disease 9.0 2.0 9.1 16.1 < 0.001
 Coronary artery disease 16.1 11.4 16.7 20.3 0.11
 Peripheral artery disease 16.5 7.4 11.8 32.2 < 0.001
 Retinopathy 33.5 28.9 34.4 37.1 0.31
 Nephropathy 29.3 26.8 30.1 30.8 0.73
 Peripheral neuropathy 29.9 24.2 28.5 37.8 0.035
Diabetes treatment (%)
 Metformin 88.1 87.9 90.9 84.6 0.22
 Sulfonylureas 43.7 43.6 46.2 40.6 0.59
 Insulin 48.1 47.7 44.6 53.1 0.31
 Aspirin 92.2 91.8 91.9 93.0 0.92
Dyslipidemia (%) 88.1 87.9 88.2 88.1 0.99
 Statins use (%) 77.0 75.2 75.3 81.1 0.37
Arterial hypertension (%) 85.8 77.9 89.2 89.5 0.004
 Number of anti-hypertensive drugs 3 (1–3) 2 (1–3) 3 (1–3) 3 (2–4) < 0.001
Blood pressures (mmHg)a
 Clinic SBP 140 (19) 135 (16) 142 (19) 144 (19) < 0.001
 Clinic DBP 79 (10) 79 (9) 79 (12) 78 (10) 0.70
Laboratory variablesa
 Fasting glycemia (mmol/l) 8.1 (2.7) 8.0 (2.8) 7.8 (2.8) 8.4 (2.6) 0.14
 HbA1c (%) 7.7 (1.5) 7.6 (1.4) 7.6 (1.6) 7.8 (1.5) 0.28
 Triacylglycerol (mmol/l) 1.9 (1.5) 1.9 (1.4) 2.0 (1.7) 1.8 (1.1) 0.72
 HDL-cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.1 (0.3) 1.1 (0.3) 1.1 (0.3) 1.1 (0.3) 0.80
 LDL-cholesterol (mmol/l) 2.8 (0.9) 2.7 (0.9) 2.7 (0.7) 3.0 (0.9) 0.018
 Glomerular filtration rate (ml/min/1.73 m2) 82 (20) 88 (19) 81 (20) 76 (20) < 0.001
 Albuminuria (mg/24 h) 14 (7–38) 12 (7–38) 13 (7–36) 16 (8–41) 0.32
Outcomesb
 Total CVEs 116 (25.8) 19 (12.6) 46 (26.4) 51 (41.1) < 0.001
 All-cause mortality 115 (23.8) 26 (16.8) 43 (22.4) 46 (33.7) 0.006
 Cardiovascular mortality 56 (11.6) 9 (5.8) 24 (12.5) 23 (16.8) 0.013
 Retinopathy (incident/worsening) (n = 425) 131 (50.4) 44 (50.5) 44 (42.5) 43 (62.2) 0.18
 Renal composite 156 (37.3) 43 (32.3) 63 (37.7) 50 (42.5) 0.15
 Peripheral neuropathy (incident/worsening) (n = 419) 83 (19.8%) 22 (16.3%) 35 (20.7%) 26 (22.6%) 0.43
  1. Values are proportions, and means (standard deviations) or medians (interquartile range)
  2. CCA-IMT common carotid artery intima-media thickness, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin, HDL high-density lipoprotein, LDL low-density lipoprotein, CVEs cardiovascular events
  3. aValues are mean values obtained during the 1st year of follow-up
  4. bValues are absolute numbers (incidence rate per 1000 patient-years of follow-up), except for peripheral neuropathy that are absolute numbers (proportions)