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Table 2 Characteristics of T1DM subgroups with low and high efflux

From: Low cholesterol efflux capacity and abnormal lipoprotein particles in youth with type 1 diabetes: a case control study

Variable Diabetes low efflux n = 37 Diabetes high efflux n = 37 P-value
Demographic and clinical characteristics
Age, years 17.0 ± 1.6 16.5 ± 1.9 0.191
Sex female (%) 21 (57) 21 (57) 1.000
Body mass index, kg/m2 23.5 ± 4.0 23.3 ± 3.6 0.804
BMI z score 0.42 ± 0.95 0.51 ± 0.80 0.644
Ethnicity, n-Caucasian (%) 26 (70) 28 (76) 0.397
Diabetes duration, years 3 (1–13.5–8) 3 (1–5) 0.200
Carotid intima media thickness mean 0.486 ± 0.070 0.474 ± 0.045 0.386
Clinical and lab values
SBP 111 ± 10 110 ± 13 0.634
SBP z score − 0.29 ± 0.80 − 0.28 ± 1.1 0.935
DBP 62 ± 7 62 ± 9 0.953
DBP z score − 0.46 ± 0.62 − 0.38 ± 0.78 0.647
Total cholesterol, mg/dL 141.9 ± 26.6 142.0 ± 26.1 0.999
HDL cholesterol, mg/dL 52.8 ± 7.9 60.4 ± 10.7 0.001
LDL cholesterol, mg/dL 78.7 ± 26.2 70.4 ± 23.9 0.159
Triglycerides, mg/dL 86.1 ± 37.1 82.1 ± 30.4 0.609
High sensitive C-reactive protein, mg/dL 0.55 (0.2–15.8) 0.60 (0.2–9.5) 0.593
HDL efflux capacity 0.89 ± 0.07 1.07 ± 0.07 <0.001
HbA1c 8.26 ± 1.22 8.50 ± 1.49 0.458
NMR values
HDL particle number 29.8 (23.4–45.2) 31.1 (24.2–42.2) 0.155
Small HDL particle number 12.5 (0–25.8) 10.0 (0.1–20.8) 0.375
Medium HDL particle number 10.8 (2.0–28.3) 11.8 (2.227.9) 0.593
Large HDL particle number 6.5 (3.3–10.0) 9.2 (3.9–17.4) 0.0003
HDL-z 9.7 (8.7–10.7) 10.0 (8.9–10.7) 0.018
LDL particle number 811 (316–1553) 713 (90–1171) 0.054
Small LDL particle number 342 (0–1236) 218 (0.0–947) 0.006
Large LDL particle number 252 (0.1–709) 279 (0–650) 0.619
LDL-z 20.5 (19.7–21.8) 20.7 (19.6–21.6) 0.284
VLDL particle number 40.3 (0–85) 40.6 (12.0–91.7) 0.957
Small VLDL particle number 34.0 (0.5–57.1) 31.1 (5.3–67.8) 0.829
Medium VLDL particle number 7.1 (0–37.5) 9.4 (0.1–33.4) 0.430
Large VLDL particle number 2.2 (0.114.0) 1.8 (0.2–13.7) 0.183
VLDL z 47.0 (36.5–63.2) 46.5 (40.0–71.2) 0.631
Apolipoprotein A 135.0 (102.5–181.4) 154.3 (125.8–237.2) 0.0001
Apolipoprotein B 75.9 (36.0–137.9) 75.9 (27.1–121.1) 0.905
Ratio of Apo A/Apo B 1.85 (0.92–3.63) 2.09 (1.10–5.74) 0.029
  1. All values are expressed as mean ± SD or median (25–75th percentile). P-value is calculated between groups for variables using unpaired t-test for continuous variables, Pearson’s Chi squared test for categorical variables and Rank sum for non-parametric tests. Tg and cholesterol are reported as milligrams per deciliter, HDLp (total, small, medium and large) are reported as micromoles per liter, whereas LDLp and VLDLp (all sizes) are reported as nanomoles per liter
  2. Italic values indicate significance of P value (P < 0.05 )