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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study participants according to quintiles of general intelligence test scores

From: Cognitive function in adolescence and the risk for premature diabetes and cardiovascular mortality in adulthood

  Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5 Total p value for linear trend
N of participants 445,492 480,543 439,974 471,624 439,555 2,277,188  
Female % 31 43 44 44 40 40  
Age ± SD 17.4 ± 0.5 17.3 ± 0.4 17.3 ± 0.4 17.3 ± 0.4 17.3 ± 0.4 17.3 ± 0.4 0.158
BMI ± SD (kg/m2) 21.7 ± 3.6 21.7 ± 3.4 21.7 ± 3.3 21.6 ± 3.2 21.6 ± 3.1 21.6 ± 3.4 0.071
Underweight % 8.7 6.9 6.0 5.7 5.4 6.5 0.024
Overweight % 8.9 8.8 8.6 8.4 7.8 8.5 0.016
Obese % 4.9 4.0 3.5 3.3 3.0 3.7 0.011
Height  ±  SD (males) 171.8 ± 6.8 173.1 ± 6.8 173.6 ± 6.7 174.4 ± 6.7 175.1 ± 6.7 173.6 ± 6.8 0.001
Height ± SD (females) 160.9 ± 6.2 161.7 ± 6.1 162.0 ± 6.1 162.6 ± 6.0 163.1 ± 6.0 162.1 ± 6.1 0.001
Completed high school education (%) 56.9 76.3 82.1 91.0 96.0 80.5 < 0.001
Low SES % 33 26 23 20 19 24 0.001
Unimpaired health 77.6 80.3 81.9 82.6 80.3 81.2 0.069
Country of origin (%)
 Israel 4.6 5.0 5.7 6.4 7.6 5.8 0.003
 USSR 9.0 10.9 11.8 14.7 16.1 12.5 0.001
 Asia 30.6 29.5 26.6 21.9 16.0 25.0 0.007
 Africa 38.1 30.8 24.5 17.8 11.8 24.7 < 0.001
 Europe 13.7 22.6 30.9 39.0 48.4 30.8 < 0.001
 Ethiopia 4.0 1.3 0.5 0.2 0.1 1.2 0.057*
Systolic/diastolic BP ± SD (mmHg) 116.5 ± 12.2/71.8 ± 8.3 115.9 ± 12.2/71.8 ± 8.2 116.3 ± 12.3/71.6 ± 8.2 116.3 ± 12.2/71.7 ± 8.2 117.1 ± 12.3/71.7 ± 8.2 116.4 ± 12.2/71.7 ± 8.2 0.110/0.319
Follow-up (mean ± SD) (years) 19.0 ± 9.8 19.2 ± 8.9 20.0 ± 10.2 19.0 ± 9.7 18.9 ± 10.3 19.2 ± 9.8 0.821
Median follow-up (25th; 75th) (years) 18.8 (10.3, 28.7) 18.9 (13.2, 27.0) 19.7 (10.6, 32.0) 18.9 (11.0, 29.3) 19.9 (9.3, 30.1) 19.2 (10.7, 29.5) 0.759
Cumulative follow-up (person-years) 8,064,856 8,840,363 8,453,920 8,577,783 7,979,682 41,916,603 0.414
Age at end of follow-up (± SD) 37.0 ± 12.1 37.0 ± 11.0 38.4 ± 12.7 36.9 ± 11.9 36.9 ± 12.5 37.2 ± 12.0 0.907
  1. * Exponential trend p < 0.001