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Table 2 Baseline and follow-up clinical characteristics, angiographic and procedural data in sub-group hyperglycemic patients

From: Thrombus aspiration in hyperglycemic ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients: clinical outcomes at 1-year follow-up

  TA group P No TA group P
Basal Follow-up Basal Follow-up
N 331 331   566 566  
Mean age (years) 68.5 ± 6.3   66.8 ± 6.4*  
BMI (kg/m2) 27.9 ± 1.7 26.7 ± 1.9 0.001 27.8 ± 1.6 26.9 ± 2.1* 0.001
SBP (mmHg) 123.7 ± 11.2 122.1 ± 11.7 0.001 126.7 ± 12.6* 126.1 ± 13.5* 0.077
DBP (mmHg) 79.1 ± 6.5 76.6 ± 6.6 0.001 78.8 ± 6.7 75.9 ± 6.7 0.001
Heart rate (bpm) 87.1 ± 8.0 77.1 ± 9.3 0.001 87.8 ± 8.4 76.7 ± 8.5 0.001
TIMI flow grade post PCI, n (%)
 Grade 0 13 (3.9)   43 (7.6)*  
 Grade 1 81 (24.5)   191 (33.7)*  
 Grade 2/3 237 (71.6)   332 (58.6)*  
Killip class 3–4, n (%) 24 (7)   34 (6)  
 Diabetes, n (%) 67 (20.2)   116 (20.5)  
 Newly diabetes, n (%) 32 (9.7) 50 (8.8)  
 Hypertension, n (%) 129 (38.9)   220 (38.9)  
 Hyperlipemia, n (%) 93 (28.1)   115 (27.4)  
 Cigarette smoking, n (%) 132 (39.9)   178 (31.5)*  
Active treatments
 β-blockers, n (%) 91 (27.5) 260 (78.5) 0.001 155 (27.4) 442 (78.1) 0.001
 ACE inhibitors, n (%) 59 (17.8) 140 (45.0) 0.001 105 (18.5) 257 (45.4) 0.001
 Angiotensin receptor blockers, n (%) 45 (13.6) 114 (34.4) 0.001 83 (14.7) 201 (35.5) 0.001
 Calcium inhibitor, n (%) 29 (8.8) 63 (19.0) 0.001 56 (9.9) 109 (19.3) 0.001
 Nitrate, n (%) 195 (58.9)   320 (56.5)  
 Statins, n (%) 83 (25.1) 308 (93.0) 0.001 143 (25.3) 526 (92.9) 0.001
 Diuretic, n (%) 29 (8.8) 32 (9.7) 0.05 48 (8.5) 43 (7.6)  
 Insulin, n (%) 35 (10.6) 48 (14.5) 0.01 60 (10.6) 65 (11.5) 0.05
 Oral antidiabetic, n (%) 59 (17.8) 89 (26.9) 0.001 101 (17.8) 132 (23.3) 0.01
 Aspirin, n (%) 146 (44.1) 327 (98.6) 0.001 251 (44.3) 557 (98.5) 0.001
 Thienopyridine, n (%) 27 (8.2) 318 (96.1) 0.001 46 (8.1) 538 (95.0) 0.001
 Dual anti-aggregant therapy 313 (94.6) 427 (93.1)
Low-molecular heparin, n (%) 41 (12.4)   76 (13.4)
Vitamin-K antagonist, n (%) 17 (5.1)   28 (4.9)
Laboratory analyses
 Plasma glucose (mg/dl) 201.4 ± 25.1 109.1 ± 23.5 0.001 200.1 ± 29.9 106.1 ± 22.5 0.001
 Cholesterol (mg/dl) 201.9 ± 21.8 195.6 ± 22.1 0.001 198.1 ± 21.9* 194.7 ± 22.7 0.001
 LDL-cholesterol (mg/dl) 128.3 ± 21.4 122.4 ± 22.1 0.001 124.3 ± 18.6* 121.7 ± 22.3 0.001
 HDL-cholesterol (mg/dl) 37.3 ± 3.4 41.2 ± 3.6 0.001 38.0 ± 3.5* 40.7 ± 3.9 0.001
 Triglycerides (mg/dl) 185.3 ± 23.5 160.1 ± 31.9 0.001 185.7 ± 22.5 161.5 ± 22.7 0.001
 Creatinine (mg/dl) 0.99 ± 0.15 1.04 ± 0.13 0.001 0.99 ± 0.14 1.4 ± 0.14 0.001
 cTnT (ng/l) 5.7 ± 2.1 5.9 ± 1.8
Procedural data
 Symptom to angiography (min) 133.8 ± 38.9 135.1 ± 50.7
 Insulin infusion time (min) 37.7 ± 5.2 37.3 ± 4.4
Angiographic data
 Number of diseased vessels, n (%)
  1-VD 228 (68.9) 388 (68.5)
  2-VD 86 (26.0) 143 (25.3)
  3-VD 17 (5.1) 35 (6.2)
 Lesion location, n (%)
  RCA 185 (55.9) 257 (45.4)*
  LAD 118 (36.5) 228 (40.3)
  LM 45 (13.6) 79 (13.9)
  LCx 103 (31.1) 215 (39.9)*
 Thrombus grade—Sianos et al., n (%)
  G0 none 30 (9.1) 62 (10.9)
  G1 possible 38 (11.5) 70 (12.4)
  G2 small 16 (4.8) 35 (6.2)
  G3 medium 57 (17.2) 99 (17.5)
  G4 large 62 (18.7) 108 (19.1)
  G5 v. occlusion 128 (38.7) 192 (33.9)
  Thrombus size (mm) 34 ± 1.9
LVEF, n (%)
 > 50 165 (49.9) 198 (59.8) 0.006 288 (50.9) 331 (58.5) 0.006
 41–50 151 (45.6) 116 (35.0) 0.004 249 (44.0) 208 (36.7) 0.01
 25–40 15 (4.5) 17 (5.1) 0.428 29 (5.1) 27 (4.8) 0.139
 Quantitative angiographic data
  Lesion length (mm) 20.3 ± 2.0 20.2 ± 2.1
  Reference diameter (mm) 2.7 ± 0.4 2.8 ± 0.3
  MLD (Mm) 1.05 ± 0.29 1.07 ± 0.16
  MLD post (in-stent) (mm) 2.7 ± 0.3 2.7 ± 0.2
 Stent types, n (%)
  BMS 146 (44.1) 233 (41.2)
  DES 185 (55.9) 333 (58.8)
  TIMI gr 3 post PCI 285 (86.1) 498 (87.9)
  Multivessel intervention 79 (23.9) 134 (23.7)
Clinical outcomes
 All cause deaths 27 (8.2)   74 (13.1)
 Cardiac deaths 17 (5.1)   62 (10.9)
 Acute coronary syndrome 25 (7.5)   67 (11.8)
 Heart failure 53 (16.1)   93 (16.4)
 Stroke 6 (1.8)   11 (1.9)
  1. Data are mean ± SD or n (%)
  2. TA thrombus-aspiration, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, RCA right coronary artery, LM left main, LAD left anterior descending, LCx left circumflex artery, MLD minimum luminal diameter, 1-VD single-vessel disease, 2-VD two-vessel disease, 3-VD three-vessel disease, BMS bare metal stent, DES drug-eluting stent, TNF-α tumor necrosis factor-alpha, MMP-9 matrix metallopeptidase-9, MDL minimal lumen diameter, PS propensity score, CD68 macrophages, TNF-α tumor necrosis factor-α
  3. * P < 0.05 vs. TA patients