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Table 1 Baseline and follow-up clinical characteristics, angiographic and procedural data in overall study-population

From: Thrombus aspiration in hyperglycemic ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients: clinical outcomes at 1-year follow-up

  TA group P No TA group P
Basal Follow-up Basal Follow-up
N 1000 1000   1504 1504  
Mean age (years) 68.1 ± 6.5   67.2 ± 6.4*  
BMI (kg/m2) 27.0 ± 2.0 26.9 ± 1.9 0.001 27.6 ± 1.8* 26.9 ± 2.1 0.001
SBP (mmHg) 128.0 ± 13.0 123.0 ± 11.7 0.001 127.0 ± 13.1 125.0 ± 13.1* 0.001
DBP (mmHg) 79.0 ± 6.8 76.0 ± 6.6 0.001 79.0 ± 6.7 76.2 ± 6.8 0.001
Heart rate (bpm) 85.0 ± 8.9 76.1 ± 8.6 0.001 87.0 ± 8.7* 77.0 ± 8.5* 0.001
TIMI flow grade, n (%)
 Grade 0 705 (70.5) 978 (65.0)*
 Grade 1 157 (15.7) 218 (14.5)
 Grade 2/3 92 (13.8) 309 (20.5)*
Killip class 3–4, n (%) 60 (6)   76 (5)  
 Diabetes, n (%) 185 (18.5) 283 (18.8)
 Newly diabetes, n (%) 136 (13.6)   228 (15.2)
 Hypertension, n (%) 503 (50.3) 743 (49.4)
 Hyperlipemia, n (%) 275 (27.5) 443 (29.5)
 Cigarette smoking, n (%) 444 (44.4) 565 (37.6)*
Active treatments
 β-blockers, n (%) 296 (26.6) 824 (82.4) 0.001 392 (26.1)* 1221 (81.2) 0.001
 ACE inhibitors, n (%) 211 (21.1) 504 (50.4) 0.001 272 (18.1)* 734 (48.8) 0.001
 Angiotensin receptor blockers, n (%) 165 (16.5) 372 (37.2) 0.001 218 (14.5) 554 (36.8) 0.001
 Calcium inhibitor, n (%) 129 (12.9) 210 (21.0) 0.001 159 (10.6)* 300 (19.9) 0.001
 Nitrate, n (%) 577 (57.7) 916 (60.9)  
 Statins, n (%) 286 (28.6) 917 (91.7) 0.001 428 (28.5) 1381 (91.8) 0.001
 Diuretic, n (%) 96 (9.6) 92 (9.2) 0.409 175 (11.6) 111 (7.4) 0.001
 Insulin, n (%) 78 (7.8) 174 (17.4) 0.001 129 (8.6) 353 (23.5)* 0.001
 Oral anti-diabetic, n (%) 168 (16.8) 282 (28.2) 0.001 266 (17.6) 534 (35.5)* 0.001
 Aspirin, n (%) 432 (43.2) 973 (97.3) 0.001 601 (40.0) 1459 (97.0)* 0.001
 Thienopyridine, n (%) 63 (6.3) 949 (94.9) 0.001 120 (8.0) 1432 (95.2) 0.001
 Dual anti-aggregant therapy 937 (93.7) 1399 (93.0)
 Low-molecular heparin, n (%) 12 (12.4) 190 (12.6)
 Vitamin-K antagonist, n (%) 37 (3.7) 54 (3.6)
Laboratory analyses
 Plasma glucose (mg/dl) 138.3 ± 26.4 109.1 ± 22.9 0.001 141.7 ± 50.1 109.6 ± 18.8 0.001
 Cholesterol (mg/dl) 198.8 ± 20.3 194.4 ± 22.8 0.001 196.2 ± 24.1* 193.9 ± 23.6 0.01
 LDL-cholesterol (mg/dl) 125.6 ± 19.6 121.2 ± 22.4 0.001 123.7 ± 22.7* 120.9 ± 22.2 0.001
 HDL-cholesterol (mg/dl) 39.7 ± 3.6 41.1 ± 3.8 0.001 38.0 ± 3.7* 41.0 ± 3.9* 0.001
 Triglycerides (mg/dl) 168.0 ± 24.0 160.3 ± 24.7 0.001 180.6 ± 24.4* 160.9 ± 22.2 0.001
 Creatinine (mg/dl) 0.9 ± 0.2 1.0 ± 0.1 0.001 0.9 ± 0.1 1.01 ± 0.1 0.001
 cTnT (ng/l) 5.6 ± 1.4 5.8 ± 1.7
Procedural data
 Symptom to angiography (min) 136.9 ± 37.2 135.8 ± 41.1
 Insulin infusion time (min)
Angiographic data
 Number of diseased vessels, n (%)
  1-VD 704 (70.4) 1055 (70.1)
  2-VD 244 (24.4) 356 (23.7)
  3-VD 52 (5.2) 93 (6.2)
 Lesion location, n (%)
  RCA 512 (51.2) 665 (44.2)*
  LAD 390 (39.0) 581 (38.6)
  LM 151 (15.1) 196 (13.0)
  LCx 298 (29.8) 604 (40.2)*
 Trombus grade—Sianos et al. n (%)
  G0 none 94 (9.4) 143 (9.5)
  G1 possible 86 (12.9) 194 (12.9)
  G2 small 78 (7.8) 124 (8.2)
  G3 medium 181 (18.1) 275 (18.3)
  G4 large 193 (19.3) 292 (19.4)
  G5 v. occlusion 332 (33.2) 476 (31.6)
Dimension (largest) (mm) 5.5 ± 1.6
Dimension (length) (mm) 22.5 ± 1.9
LVEF, n (%)
 > 50 513 (51.3) 571 (57.1) 0.005 813 (54.1) 881 (58.5) 0.008
 41–50 413 (41.3) 374 (37.4) 0.041 614 (40.8) 548 (36.8) 0.007
 25–40 74 (7.4) 54 (5.4) 0.046 76 (5.1)* 75 (5.0) 0.533
 Quantitative angiographic data
  Lesion length (mm) 20.5 ± 2.0 20.3 ± 2.0*
  Reference diameter (mm) 2.7 ± 0.3 2.8 ± 0.2*
  MLD (mm) 1.05 ± 0.2 1.07 ± 0.2*
  MLD post (in-stent) (mm) 2.6 ± 0.3 2.6 ± 0.3
 Stent types, n (%)
  BMS 455 (45.5) 642 (41.6)
  DES 545 (54.5) 873 (56.4)
  TIMI gr 3 post PCI 920 (92.0) 1355 (90.1)
  TIMI gr 2 post PCI 54 (5.4) 92 (6.1)
  TIMI gr 1 post PCI 22 (2.2) 47 (3.1)
  TIMI gr 0 post PCI 4 (0.4) 12 (0.8)
  Multivessel intervention 241 (24.1) 363 (24.1)
Clinical outcomes
 All cause deaths 56 (5.6) 96 (6.4)
 Cardiac deaths 48 (4.8) 89 (5.9)
 Acute coronary syndrome 67 (6.7) 107 (7.1)
 Heart failure 121 (12.1) 186 (12.4)
 Stroke 12 (1.2) 19 (1.3)
  1. Data are mean ± SD or n (%)
  2. TA thrombus-aspiration, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, RCA right coronary artery, LM left main, LAD left anterior descending, LCx left circumflex artery, MLD minimum luminal diameter, 1-VD single-vessel disease, 2-VD two-vessel disease, 3-VD three-vessel disease, BMS bare metal stent, DES drug-eluting stent, TNF-α tumor necrosis factor-alpha, MMP-9 matrix metallopeptidase-9, MDL minimal lumen diameter, PS propensity score, CD68 macrophages, TNF-α tumor necrosis factor-α
  3. * P < 0.05 vs. TA patients