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Table 2 Crude prevalence of microvascular or macrovascular diseases and related procedures at baseline, overall and according to region

From: Vascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes: prevalence and associated factors in 38 countries (the DISCOVER study program)

  Total (N = 15,992) Africa (n = 812) Americas (n = 2002) South-East Asia (n = 3360) Europe (n = 3479) Eastern Mediterranean (n = 2182) Western Pacific (n = 4157)
Any microvascular disease, n (%) 3005 (18.8) 118 (14.5) 302 (15.1) 556 (16.5) 812 (23.5) 399 (18.3) 818 (19.7)
 CKD 794 (5.0) 20 (2.5) 90 (4.5) 23 (0.7) 257 (7.4) 31 (1.4) 373 (9.0)
 Albuminuria 605 (4.3) 21 (2.6) 40 (2.0) 188 (5.6) 195 (5.6) 91 (4.2) 70 (3.1)
 Retinopathy 624 (3.9) 22 (2.7) 68 (3.4) 30 (0.9) 198 (5.7) 69 (3.2) 237 (5.7)
 Retinal laser photocoagulation 98 (0.6) 4 (0.5) 17 (0.8) 1 (0.0) 14 (0.4) 9 (0.4) 53 (1.3)
 Autonomic neuropathy 155 (1.0) 1 (0.1) 9 (0.4) 40 (1.2) 28 (0.8) 25 (1.1) 52 (1.3)
 Peripheral neuropathy 1237 (7.7) 47 (5.8) 114 (5.7) 324 (9.6) 324 (9.4) 181 (8.3) 247 (5.9)
 Erectile dysfunction 426 (2.7) 38 (4.7) 65 (3.2) 28 (0.8) 115 (3.3) 102 (4.7) 78 (1.9)
Any macrovascular disease, n (%) 2027 (12.7) 74 (9.1) 232 (11.6) 135 (4.0) 915 (26.7) 218 (10.0) 453 (10.9)
 Heart failure 527 (3.3) 7 (0.9) 54 (2.7) 18 (0.5) 368 (10.7) 23 (1.1) 57 (1.4)
 CAD 1310 (8.2) 59 (7.3) 151 (7.5) 91 (2.7) 622 (18.1) 172 (7.9) 215 (5.2)
  Angina 473 (3.0) 19 (2.3) 53 (2.6) 10 (0.3) 262 (7.6) 40 (1.8) 89 (2.1)
  Myocardial infarction 445 (2.8) 39 (4.8) 80 (4.0) 18 (0.5) 228 (6.6) 31 (1.4) 49 (1.2)
  PCI 424 (2.7) 10 (1.2) 62 (3.1) 19 (0.6) 184 (5.4) 70 (3.2) 79 (1.9)
  CABG 140 (0.9) 10 (1.2) 17 (0.8) 13 (0.4) 71 (2.1) 15 (0.7) 14 (0.3)
Stroke 352 (2.2) 4 (0.5) 35 (1.7) 20 (0.6) 114 (3.3) 29 (1.3) 150 (3.6)
Transient ischemic attack 107 (0.7) 3 (0.4) 14 (0.7) 1 (0.0) 36 (1.0) 17 (0.8) 36 (0.9)
Carotid artery stent 16 (0.1) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 7 (0.2) 4 (0.2) 4 (0.1)
Carotid endarterectomy 16 (0.1) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 12 (0.3) 1 (0.0) 3 (0.1)
PAD 197 (1.2) 4 (0.5) 15 (0.7) 2 (0.1) 108 (3.1) 10 (0.5) 58 (1.4)
  Diabetic foot 87 (0.5) 4 (0.5) 20 (1.0) 15 (0.4) 32 (0.9) 7 (0.3) 9 (0.2)
  Amputation 32 (0.2) 6 (0.7) 12 (0.6) 1 (0.0) 9 (0.3) 3 (0.1) 1 (0.0)
Defibrillator use 8 (0.1) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 7 (0.2) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.0)
  1. Percentages calculated for all patients with data available; unreported data are excluded
  2. CABG coronary artery bypass grafting, CAD coronary artery disease, CKD chronic kidney disease, PAD peripheral artery disease, PCI percutaneous coronary intervention