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Table 1 Patient demographics and baseline characteristics, overall and according to region

From: Vascular complications in patients with type 2 diabetes: prevalence and associated factors in 38 countries (the DISCOVER study program)

  Total (N = 15,992) Africa (n = 812) Americas (n = 2002) South-East Asia (n = 3360) Europe (n = 3479) Eastern Mediterranean (n = 2182) Western Pacific (n = 4157)
Proportion of overall population (%) 100.0 5.1 12.5 21.0 21.8 13.6 26.0
Sex, male, n (%) 8664 (54.2) 306 (37.7) 963 (48.1) 1852 (55.1) 1856 (53.4) 1278 (58.6) 2409 (58.0)
Age, years, mean (SD) 57.2 (12.0) 54.9 (11.2) 58.3 (11.8) 53.1 (11.3) 61.9 (10.9) 53.8 (10.8) 58.5 (12.6)
Self-reported ethnicity, n (%)
 Caucasian 3917 (25.6) 105 (12.9) 480 (29.4) 1 (0.0) 3020 (94.8) 165 (7.6) 146 (3.5)
 Black 310 (2.0) 235 (29.0) 61 (3.7) 0 (0.0) 13 (0.4) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.0)
 Mixed 213 (1.4) 91 (11.2) 115 (7.0) 0 (0.0) 4 (0.1) 0 (0.0) 3 (0.1)
 Asian 7610 (49.7) 177 (21.8) 9 (0.6) 3339 (99.5) 20 (0.6) 72 (3.3) 3993 (96.1)
 Hispanic 942 (6.2) 1 (0.1) 928 (56.8) 0 (0.0) 11 (0.3) 0 (0.0) 2 (0.0)
 Arabic 2151 (14.0) 200 (24.7) 4 (0.2) 2 (0.1) 12 (0.4) 1933 (88.9) 0 (0.0)
 Other 174 (1.1) 2 (0.2) 36 (2.2) 15 (0.4) 104 (3.3) 5 (0.2) 12 (0.3)
If Asian
 Chinese 1604 (21.1) 0 (0.0) 1 (11.1) 52 (1.6) 2 (10.5) 0 (0.0) 1549 (38.8)
 South Asian 2602 (34.2) 60 (33.9) 2 (22.2) 2406 (72.1) 9 (47.4) 46 (63.9) 79 (2.0)
 East Asian 433 (5.7) 22 (12.4) 1 (11.1) 48 (1.4) 5 (26.3) 16 (22.2) 341 (8.5)
 Other Asian 2971 (39.0) 95 (53.7) 5 (55.6) 833 (24.9) 3 (15.8) 10 (13.9) 2025 (50.7)
Time in formal education, n (%)
 No formal education 471 (3.2) 57 (7.3) 50 (3.2) 26 (0.8) 78 (2.5) 158 (7.7) 102 (2.7)
 Primary (1–6 years) 2295 (15.8) 183 (23.3) 442 (28.7) 343 (10.4) 588 (19.1) 360 (17.6) 379 (10.0)
 Secondary (7–13 years) 7190 (49.4) 420 (53.5) 587 (38.1) 1431 (43.2) 1781 (58.0) 767 (37.5) 2204 (58.0)
 Higher (> 13 years) 4599 (31.6) 125 (15.9) 463 (30.0) 1514 (45.7) 626 (20.4) 759 (37.1) 1112 (29.3)
Diabetes duration since diagnosis, years
 Mean (SD) 5.6 (5.3) 6.9 (5.7) 6.2 (6.1) 4.6 (4.1) 6.6 (5.4) 5.8 (5.1) 5.1 (5.4)
 Median (IQR) 4.1 (1.9–7.9) 5.7 (2.9–9.3) 4.4 (1.9–8.7) 3.4 (2.0–6.1) 5.4 (2.7–9.1) 4.2 (2.1–8.0) 3.4 (1.0–7.6)
HbA1c (%)
 Mean (SD) 8.3 (1.7) 8.6 (1.9) 8.5 (1.9) 8.6 (1.7) 8.1 (1.6) 8.7 (1.6) 8.1 (1.7)
 Median (IQR) 8.0 (7.2–9.1) 8.0 (7.4–9.4) 8.0 (7.2–9.4) 8.3 (7.5–9.6) 7.8 (7.2–8.7) 8.3 (7.6–9.4) 7.6 (7.0–8.7)
BMI, kg/m2, mean (SD) 29.1 (5.9) 30.6 (6.2) 30.6 (6.1) 27.3 (4.5) 31.9 (6.1) 31.1 (5.7) 26.1 (5.0)
Tobacco smoking, n (%)
 Nonsmoker 10,831 (69.4) 633 (78.9) 1299 (66.1) 3066 (91.7) 2001 (59.9) 1579 (74.0) 2253 (56.1)
 Ex-smoker 2537 (16.3) 93 (11.6) 460 (23.4) 128 (3.8) 791 (23.7) 189 (8.9) 876 (21.8)
 Current smoker 2232 (14.3) 76 (9.5) 205 (10.4) 151 (4.5) 546 (16.4) 366 (17.2) 888 (22.1)
SBP, mmHg, mean (SD) 132.3 (16.5) 134.2 (18.6) 131.2 (17.7) 128.8 (15.2) 136.4 (16.6) 133.3 (15.7) 131.6 (16.0)
DBP, mmHg, mean (SD) 79.9 (10.0) 80.1 (10.5) 80.6 (10.6) 79.9 (8.4) 81.1 (9.6) 79.8 (9.7) 78.6 (10.9)
TC, mg/dl, mean (SD) 187.0 (47.1) 179.1 (41.1) 182.1 (46.1) 179.8 (48.7) 190.6 (49.9) 189.6 (47.8) 189.6 (43.7)
History of hypoglycemiaa, n (%) 700 (4.6) 50 (6.4) 60 (3.8) 96 (2.9) 141 (4.2) 155 (7.8) 198 (4.9)
Comedication, n (%)
 ACEi or ARB 5862 (36.7) 315 (38.8) 827 (41.3) 990 (29.5) 1785 (51.3) 715 (32.8) 1230 (29.6)
 Diuretic 1867 (11.7) 223 (27.5) 250 (12.5) 203 (6.0) 780 (22.4) 197 (9.0) 214 (5.1)
 β-blocker 2158 (13.5) 87 (10.7) 277 (13.8) 257 (7.6) 978 (28.1) 277 (12.7) 282 (6.8)
 Statin 6710 (42.0) 360 (44.3) 826 (41.3) 1497 (44.6) 1534 (44.1) 997 (45.7) 1496 (36.0)
 ASA 2562 (16.0) 214 (26.4) 374 (18.7) 278 (8.3) 776 (22.3) 485 (22.2) 435 (10.5)
First-line therapy, n (%)
 MET monotherapy 9076 (56.8) 679 (83.6) 1545 (77.2) 1505 (44.8) 2517 (72.4) 1063 (48.7) 1767 (42.5)
 SU monotherapy 1230 (7.7) 27 (3.3) 137 (6.8) 186 (5.5) 269 (7.7) 288 (13.2) 323 (7.8)
 DPP-4i monotherapy 1194 (7.5) 1 (0.1) 40 (2.0) 43 (1.3) 53 (1.5) 19 (0.9) 1038 (25.0)
 Other monotherapy 631 (3.9) 2 (0.2) 17 (0.8) 36 (1.1) 59 (1.7) 13 (0.6) 504 (12.1)
 MET + SU 2300 (14.4) 73 (9.0) 135 (6.7) 1045 (31.1) 287 (8.3) 518 (23.8) 242 (5.8)
 MET + DPP-4i 497 (3.1) 1 (0.1) 92 (4.6) 123 (3.7) 94 (2.7) 130 (6.0) 57 (1.4)
 MET + other (dual therapy) 266 (1.7) 18 (2.2) 3 (0.1) 61 (1.8) 56 (1.6) 16 (0.7) 112 (2.7)
 Other combinations 794 (5.0) 11 (1.4) 33 (1.6) 361 (10.7) 141 (4.1) 134 (6.1) 114 (2.7)
  1. Percentages calculated for all patients with data available; unreported data are excluded
  2. ACEi angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker, ASA acetylsalicylic acid, BMI body mass index, DBP diastolic blood pressure, DPP-4i dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin, IQR interquartile range, MET metformin, SBP systolic blood pressure, SD standard deviation, SU sulfonylurea, TC total cholesterol
  3. aMinor hypoglycemic event in the previous month or major hypoglycemic event in the previous year