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Table 2 Role of chemokines and cytokines in atherosclerosis

From: Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) in atherosclerosis: a double-edged sword

Mediators Derived Function References
CCL2/
MCP-1
Adipocytes Recruitment of T cells and monocytes
Macrophage infiltration
[130, 286]
[156]
CCL5/
RANTES
T cells, ECs
VSMCs, adipocytes
Recruitment of T cells and monocytes [130, 286]
CX3CL1 Monocytes
ECs
Recruitment of T cells and monocytes
Migration of VSMCs
Anti-apoptosis and proliferative effects on monocytes and VSMCs
[130, 286]
[287]
[288, 289]
IFN-γ Immune cells
NK cells
Activation of monocytes/macrophages
Polarization of immune cells
Impair endothelium-dependent relaxation
VSMCs proliferation and apoptosis
[290]
[290]
[137]
[291]
IL-6 Macrophage
T cells, ECs
Adipocytes
Impair endothelium-dependent relaxation
Superoxide production and endothelium dysfunction
Th17 cell differentiation with pro-inflammatory effects on ECs and VSMCs
VSMCs migration and proliferation
[292]
[293, 294]
[295]
[296]
IL-17 Th cells Expression of adhesion molecules in ECs and VSMCs
Decreased NO production
Collage deposition
[297]
[298]
[299]
TNF-α Immune cells
Adipocytes
Decrease eNOS expression, enhance ROS production
Increase endothelial adhesion molecules and chemokines
[143, 300]
[300]
IL-10 Treg cells
Macrophage
DCs
Reduce oxidative stress
Increase production of NO
Inhibit activation of P38 MAPK
[141]
[141]
[122]