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Table 2 Role of chemokines and cytokines in atherosclerosis

From: Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) in atherosclerosis: a double-edged sword

Mediators Derived Function References
CCL2/ MCP-1 Adipocytes Recruitment of T cells and monocytes Macrophage infiltration [130, 286] [156]
CCL5/ RANTES T cells, ECs VSMCs, adipocytes Recruitment of T cells and monocytes [130, 286]
CX3CL1 Monocytes ECs Recruitment of T cells and monocytes Migration of VSMCs Anti-apoptosis and proliferative effects on monocytes and VSMCs [130, 286] [287] [288, 289]
IFN-γ Immune cells NK cells Activation of monocytes/macrophages Polarization of immune cells Impair endothelium-dependent relaxation VSMCs proliferation and apoptosis [290] [290] [137] [291]
IL-6 Macrophage T cells, ECs Adipocytes Impair endothelium-dependent relaxation Superoxide production and endothelium dysfunction Th17 cell differentiation with pro-inflammatory effects on ECs and VSMCs VSMCs migration and proliferation [292] [293, 294] [295] [296]
IL-17 Th cells Expression of adhesion molecules in ECs and VSMCs Decreased NO production Collage deposition [297] [298] [299]
TNF-α Immune cells Adipocytes Decrease eNOS expression, enhance ROS production Increase endothelial adhesion molecules and chemokines [143, 300] [300]
IL-10 Treg cells Macrophage DCs Reduce oxidative stress Increase production of NO Inhibit activation of P38 MAPK [141] [141] [122]