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Table 5 Risk of adverse outcomes and healthcare utilization according to frailty component individually

From: Both pre-frailty and frailty increase healthcare utilization and adverse health outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Variables Crude Modela
HR 95% CI HR 95% CI
Mortality
 Fatigue 1.3 1.27–1.34b 1.03 1.00–1.06c
 Resistance 2.24 2.09–2.4b 1.21 1.13–1.3b
 Ambulation 3.47 3.22–3.75b 1.06 0.98–1.15
 Illness 4.52 4.42–4.61b 0.99 0.96–1.02
 Body weight loss 4.03 3.83–4.23b 1.37 1.3–1.44b
Cardiovascular events
 Fatigue 1.21 1.18–1.24b 0.99 0.96–1.01
 Resistance 1.75 1.62–1.9b 1.09 1.00–1.17c
 Ambulation 2.69 2.47–2.94b 0.97 0.89–1.07
 Illness 4.68 4.58–4.78b 1.17 1.14–1.21b
 Body weight loss 2.21 2.07–2.36b 1.15 1.07–1.23b
Hospitalization
 Fatigue 1.25 1.24–1.26b 1.04 1.03–1.06b
 Resistance 1.71 1.64–1.77b 1.17 1.13–1.22b
 Ambulation 2.33 2.22–2.44b 1.13 1.08–1.19b
 Illness 2.82 2.79–2.86b 1.06 1.04–1.08b
 Body weight loss 2.09 2.02–2.16b 1.22 1.18–1.26b
ICU admission
 Fatigue 1.27 1.24–1.3b 1.01 0.99–1.04
 Resistance 2.04 1.9–2.18b 1.2 1.12–1.28b
 Ambulation 3.08 2.85–3.33b 1.07 0.99–1.16
 Illness 4.06 3.97–4.14b 1.03 1.00–1.06
 Body weight loss 3.03 2.87–3.19b 1.32 1.25–1.4b
  1. CI confidence interval, HR hazard ratio, ICU intensive care unit
  2. aAdjusted for demographic profiles, comorbidities, aDSCI, and medications
  3. bp < 0.001
  4. cp < 0.05