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Table 4 Adverse outcomes and healthcare utilization among diabetic participants with different severities of frailty

From: Both pre-frailty and frailty increase healthcare utilization and adverse health outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

Variables Number of events Person-year Incidence densitya Crude HR Modelb Modelc Modeld
HR 95% CI HR 95% CI HR 95% CI HR 95% CI
Mortality
 Number of frailty components
  0 26,063 1521,110.06 17.13 1 1 1 1
  1 13,435 363,900.81 36.92 2.16 2.11–2.2f 1.05 1.02–1.07e 1.05 1.02–1.07e 1.05 1.02–1.07e
  2 3844 46,547.67 82.58 4.83 4.67–4.99f 1.13 1.08–1.17f 1.13 1.09–1.18f 1.13 1.09–1.18f
  ≥ 3 600 3724.94 161.08 9.42 8.69–10.22f 1.25 1.15–1.36e 1.25 1.15–1.36e 1.25 1.15–1.36e
 Every 1 component increase     2.15 2.13–2.18f 1.06 1.04–1.08f 1.06 1.04–1.08f 1.06 1.04–1.08f
Cardiovascular events
 Number of frailty components
  0 28,054 1,465,567.99 19.14 1 1 1 1
  1 13,358 338,756.78 39.43 2.05 2.01–2.1f 1.05 1.02–1.07e 1.05 1.03–1.08f 1.05 1.03–1.08f
  2 3422 40,228.14 85.06 4.38 4.22–4.54f 1.15 1.1–1.2f 1.16 1.1–1.2f 1.16 1.1–1.2f
  ≥ 3 375 3083.18 121.63 6.18 5.58–6.85f 1.13 1.01–1.25g 1.13 1.02–1.25e 1.13 1.02–1.25g
 Every 1 component increase     2.03 2–2.05f 1.06 1.04–1.08f 1.06 1.04–1.08f 1.06 1.04–1.08f
Hospitalization
 Number of frailty components
  0 144,963 1,180,101.25 122.84 1 1 1 1
  1 49,391 249,466.94 197.77 1.58 1.57–1.6f 1.06 1.05–1.07f 1.06 1.05–1.07f 1.06 1.05–1.07f
  2 9787 24,850.17 393.84 3.01 2.95–3.07f 1.16 1.14–1.19f 1.16 1.13–1.19f 1.16 1.13–1.19f
  ≥ 3 1040 1659.98 626.51 4.59 4.32–4.88f 1.25 1.18–1.33f 1.25 1.17–1.33f 1.25 1.17–1.33f
 Every 1 component increase     1.65 1.64–1.67f 1.07 1.06–1.08f 1.07 1.06–1.08f 1.07 1.06–1.08f
ICU admission
 Number of frailty components
  0 31,913 1,470,810.05 21.7 1 1 1 1
  1 14,758 342,678.79 43.07 1.98 1.94–2.02f 1.05 1.03–1.07f 1.05 1.02–1.07f 1.05 1.03–1.07f
  2 3839 41,595.75 92.29 4.21 4.07–4.36f 1.13 1.08–1.14f 1.13 1.08–1.17f 1.13 1.09-1.17f
  ≥ 3 492 3140.36 156.67 7.07 6.47–7.73f 1.17 1.06–1.28e 1.16 1.06–1.27e 1.16 1.06–1.27e
 Every 1 component increase     2 1.97–2.02f 1.06 1.04–1.07f 1.06 1.04–1.07f 1.06 1.04–1.07f
  1. CI confidence interval, HR hazard ratio, ICU intensive care unit
  2. aPer 1000 person-year
  3. bAdjusted for demographic profiles, comorbidities, aDSCI, and medications
  4. cAdjusted for demographic profiles, comorbidities (including obesity, mental illnesses, hypoglycemia history), substance use (smoking and alcohol abuse), aDCSI, and medications
  5. dAnalysis including both type 1 and type 2 DM patients
  6. ep < 0.01
  7. fp < 0.001
  8. gp < 0.05