Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Study population

From: Type 2 diabetes is independently associated with all-cause mortality secondary to ventricular tachyarrhythmias

Characteristic Before matching (n = 2411) After matching (n = 894)
Non-diabetics (n = 1798; 75%) Diabetics (n = 613; 25%) p value Non-diabetics (n = 447; 50%) Diabetics (n = 447; 50%) p value
Ventricular tachyarrhythmias, n (%)
 Ventricular tachycardia 1006 (56) 350 (57) 0.622 275 (62) 272 (61) 0.837
  Monomorphic 973 (97) 339 (97) 0.901 267 (97) 262 (96) 0.615
  Polymorphic 33 (3) 11 (3) 8 (3) 10 (4)
 Ventricular fibrillation 792 (44) 263 (43) 0.622 172 (39) 175 (39) 0.837
Age, median (range) 67 (14–97) 71 (33–95) 0.001 70 (21–94) 71 (33–91) 0.040
Male gender, n (%) 1288 (72) 440 (72) 0.946 348 (78) 331 (74) 0.183
Cardiovascular risk factors, n (%)
 Arterial hypertension 891 (50) 464 (76) 0.001 287 (64) 351 (79) 0.001
 Hyperlipidemia 448 (25) 210 (34) 0.001 152 (34) 164 (37) 0.401
 Smoking 478 (27) 161 (26) 0.876 133 (30) 128 (29) 0.713
 Cardiac family history 188 (11) 34 (6) 0.001 53 (12) 26 (6) 0.001
Comorbidities, n (%)
 Prior heart failure 355 (20) 196 (32) 0.001 143 (32) 172 (39) 0.042
 Prior coronary artery disease 608 (34) 336 (55) 0.001 248 (56) 270 (60) 0.136
 Prior myocardial infarction 363 (20) 180 (29) 0.001 147 (33) 150 (34) 0.831
 Valvular heart disease 138 (8) 74 (12) 0.001 46 (10) 61 (14) 0.122
 Acute myocardial infarction 507 (28) 180 (29) 0.581 123 (28) 128 (29) 0.710
  STEMI 184 (10) 52 (9) 0.208 29 (7) 38 (9) 0.253
  NSTEMI 323 (18) 128 (21) 0.110 94 (21) 90 (20) 0.741
 Non-ischemic cardiomyopathy 96 (5) 27 (4) 0.364 32 (7) 27 (6) 0.501
 Atrial fibrillation 492 (27) 223 (36) 0.001 155 (35) 170 (38) 0.297
 Stroke (ischemic or hemorrhage) 42 (2) 30 (5) 0.001 12 (3) 20 (5) 0.150
 Chronic kidney disease 801 (46) 387 (64) 0.001 25 (56) 27 (62) 0.048
 Cardiopulmonary resuscitation 831 (52) 425 (57) 0.001 175 (39) 198 (44) 0.119
  In hospital 310 (17) 169 (28) 0.001 77 (17) 109 (24) 0.008
  Out of hospital 521 (29) 139 (23) 0.001 98 (22) 89 (20) 0.459
Coronary angiography, overall, n (%) 1055 (59) 362 (59) 0.870 291 (65) 295 (66) 0.778
 Coronary artery disease 742 (41) 305 (50) 0.001 233 (52) 249 (56) 0.155
  None 313 (30) 57 (16) 0.001 58 (20) 46 (16) 0.169
  1-vessel 244 (23) 82 (23) 0.853 74 (25) 66 (22) 0.386
  2-vessel 249 (24) 86 (24) 0.952 73 (25) 73 (25) 0.924
  3-vessel 249 (24) 137 (38) 0.001 86 (30) 110 (37) 0.047
  Chronic total occlusion 190 (18) 100 (28) 0.001 70 (24) 82 (28) 0.301
  Presence of CABG 110 (10) 73 (20) 0.001 49 (17) 66 (22) 0.092
 Percutaneous coronary intervention 479 (45) 163 (45) 0.902 113 (39) 123 (42) 0.480
Left ventricular ejection function, n (%)
 LVEF ≥ 55% 431 (24) 101 (16) 0.001 102 (23) 100 (22) 0.873
 LVEF 54–35% 449 (25) 160 (26) 0.579 156 (35) 139 (31) 0.227
 LVEF < 35% 427 (24) 211 (34) 0.001 189 (42) 208 (47) 0.201
 Not documented 491 (27) 141 (23)
Electrophysiological examination, n (%) 481 (27) 111 (18) 0.001 128 (30) 88 (20) 0.001
 Induced ventricular tachycardia
  Inferior 11 (2) 2 (2) 0.753 3 (2) 2 (2) 0.973
  Apical 152 (32) 40 (36) 0.368 42 (33) 35 (40) 0.294
  Septal 18 (4) 1 (0.9) 0.126 6 (5) 0 (0) 0.083
  Lateral 5 (1) 4 (4) 0.069 0 (0) 3 (3) 0.066
  Left ventricular 23 (5) 4 (4) 0.592 6 (5) 3 (3) 0.741
  Right ventricular 162 (34) 43 (39) 0.313 53 (41) 38 (41) 0.795
  LVOT 7 (2) 3 (3) 0.358 3 (2) 2 (2) 1.000
  RVOT 84 (18) 15 (14) 0.315 21 (16) 14 (16) 1.000
 Ablation of ventricular tachycardia, n (%) 117 (7) 13 (2) 0.001 31 (7) 9 (2) 0.001
Patients at discharge, n (%) 1296 (72) 402 (66) 0.002 357 (80) 322 (72) 0.001
Presence of ICD overall, n (%) 643 (50) 217 (54) 0.126 214 (60) 190 (59) 0.816
 ICD 572 (89) 189 (87) 0.458 192 (91) 165 (87) 0.237
 s-ICD 24 (4) 7 (3) 0.729 0 (0) 7 (4) 1.000
 CRT-D 47 (7) 21 (10) 0.264 20 (9) 18 (10) 0.989
  Bipolar electrodes 17 (36) 6 (29) 0.541 8 (40) 5 (28) 0.428
  Multipolar electrodes 30 (64) 15 (71) 12 (60) 13 (72)
 Primary prevention 266 (41) 109 (50) 0.023 97 (45) 98 (52) 0.209
 Secondary prevention 377 (59) 108 (50) 117 (55) 92 (48)
Medication at discharge, n (%)
 Beta-blocker 1010 (78) 336 (84) 0.014 311 (87) 279 (87) 0.857
 ACEi/ARB 904 (70) 323 (80) 0.001 249 (82) 266 (83) 0.930
 Statin 734 (57) 283 (71) 0.001 256 (72) 234 (73) 0.780
 Digitalis 133 (10) 69 (17) 0.001 50 (14) 59 (18) 0.126
 Amiodarone 169 (13) 88 (22) 0.001 66 (19) 69 (21) 0.338
 Sotalol 10 (0.8) 5 (1) 0.376 2 (0.6) 4 (1) 0.430
 Vitamin K antagonist 225 (17) 88 (22) 0.038 88 (25) 74 (23) 0.611
 NOAC 29 (2) 9 (2) 0.992 7 (2) 6 (2) 0.926
 Low molecular heparin 95 (7) 40 (10) 0.089 32 (9) 31 (10) 0.766
  1. ACE angiotensin converting enzyme, ARB angiotensin II receptor blocker, CABG coronary artery bypass grafting, CRT-D cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator, DM type 2 diabetes mellitus, ICD implantable cardioverter defibrillator, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, LVOT/RVOT left/right ventricular outflow tract, s-ICD subcutaneous ICD, NOAC novel oral anticoagulant, (N)STEMI (non) ST segment elevation myocardial infarction