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Table 3 The association of HDP history and CVD risk factors at age 50, the change in CVD risk factors from age 50 to age 60 years, and the interaction between HDP history and age

From: Midlife development of type 2 diabetes and hypertension in women by history of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy

  Age 50, no HDP history Mean differencea at age 50 years in women with history of HDP (95% CI) p, history of HDP Mean difference, age 60 vs. 50 years (95% CI)b p, age Interaction, history of HDP and age 60 years (95% CI)c p, interaction
BMI, kg/m2
 Model I Reference 1.16 (0.66; 1.66) < 0.001 1.12 (1.06; 1.17) < 0.001 − 0.15 (− 0.42; 0.12) 0.27
 Model II Reference 1.13 (0.63; 1.63) < 0.001 1.12 (1.06; 1.17) < 0.001 − 0.15 (− 0.42; 0.12) 0.27
 Model III Reference 1.09 (0.59; 1.59) < 0.001 1.06 (1.00; 1.12) < 0.001 − 0.15 (− 0.42; 0.12) 0.27
SBP, mmHg
 Model I Reference 13.5 (11.2; 15.8) < 0.001 8.28 (7.85; 8.72) < 0.001 −2.84 (− 4.94; − 0.73) 0.01
 Model II Reference 13.3 (11.1; 15.6) < 0.001 8.28 (7.85; 8.72) < 0.001 −2.84 (− 4.94; − 0.73) 0.01
 Model III Reference 11.5 (9.32; 13.7) < 0.001 10.2 (7.44; 12.9) < 0.001 − 2.41 (− 4.49; − 0.33) 0.02
DBP, mmHg
 Model I Reference 8.58 (7.23; 9.93) < 0.001 2.46 (2.20; 2.73) < 0.001 −3.15 (− 4.42; − 1.89) < 0.001
 Model II Reference 8.50 (7.15; 9.85) < 0.001 2.46 (2.20; 2.73) < 0.001 − 3.15 (− 4.42; − 1.89) < 0.001
 Model III Reference 7.55 (6.25; 8.86) < 0.001 4.06 (2.42; 5.71) < 0.001 − 2.91 (− 4.18; − 1.65) < 0.001
Total serum cholesterol, %a
 Model I Reference 3.9 (1.4; 6.4) 0.002 5.1 (4.5; 5.7) < 0.001 − 1.9 (− 4.7; 1.0) 0.20
 Model II Reference 3.8 (1.3; 6.3) 0.003 5.1 (4.5; 5.7) < 0.001 − 1.9 (− 4.7; 1.0) 0.20
 Model III Reference 3.5 (1.0; 6.0) 0.007 16.8 (13.1; 20.5) < 0.001 − 1.5 (− 4.3; 1.4) 0.30
  1. Model I includes: history of HDP (yes or no), age at visit (50 or 60 years), interaction term between HDP and age at visit
  2. Model II additionally includes: family history of diabetes mellitus (yes/no), family history of cardiovascular disease (yes or no)
  3. Model III additionally adjusts for: smoking (yes or no), interaction term between age and smoking, education level (9 years or less, 10–12 years, > 12 years), year of birth, BMI (not in model with BMI as outcome), interaction between age and BMI (not in model with BMI as outcome)
  4. BMI body mass index, CI confidence interval, CVD cardiovascular disease, DBP diastolic blood pressure, HDP hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, OGTT oral glucose tolerance test, SBP systolic blood pressure
  5. aFor cholesterol the results are presented as difference in percentage as the outcome is log transformed
  6. bThe effect estimate of 10 years age increase from age 50 years is shown for comparison with the effect estimate of HDP history at age 50 years
  7. cColumn shows the difference in associations with HDP history at age 60 years compared to age 50 years