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Table 3 Relationships between echocardiographic variables and baseline characteristics in patients, results from univariable and multivariable regression analysis

From: Overweight and obesity impair left ventricular systolic function as measured by left ventricular ejection fraction and global longitudinal strain

Explanatory variable LV mass LVEF GLS E/é
Univariable Multivariable model R2 = 0.23 Univariable Multivariable model R2 = 0.19 Univariable Multivariable model R2 = 0.24 Univariable Multivariable model R2 = 0.18
β1, R2 B β1, R2 B β1, R2 B β1, R2 B
Demographic data
 Age, years 0.4, 0.00   0.08, 0.00   − 0.02, 0.00   0.14*, 0.02  
 Gender = female − 12.8***, 0.06 − 8.1** − 0.04, 0.00   − 0.91**, 0.03 − 0.8* 1.08**, 0.02 1.4***
 Smoker/former smoker 4.2, 0.01   − 0.8, 0.00   − 0.27, 0.00   − 0.30, 0.00  
 BMI, kg/m2 1.1***, 0.05 1.1*** − 0.7***, 0.16 − 0.7*** 0.17***, 0.10 0.2*** 0.13**, 0.03  
Medical history
 Diabetes duration, years − 0.1, 0.00   0.09, 0.00   − 0.01, 0.00   0.05, 0.00  
 Angina pectoris 17.9***,0.04   − 4.6**, 0.02   2.7***, 0.00 1.6*** 1.22, 0.01  
 Myocardial infarction 13.2*, 0.02   − 3.3, 0.01   1.7**, 0.02   0.74, 0.00  
 Coronary revascularization 16.2**, 0.02   − 3.0, 0.01   1.67**, 0.03   − 0.37, 0.00  
 Heart failure 20.8*, 0.01   − 12.2***, 0.05 − 9.6*** 4.3***, 0.05 2.5** 4.05**, 0.03  
 Hypertension 3.8, 0.01   1.6, 0.01   − 0.13, 0.00   0.60, 0.01  
Medication
 Loop diuretics 6.8, 0.00   − 5.8***, 0.03   1.9**, 0.03   2.7***, 0.04 2.1**
 Statins − 3.3, 0.00   − 0.59, 0.00   0.26, 0.00   0.28, 0.00  
 ACEI and/or ARB 4.2, 0.01   0.38, 0.00   0.00, 0.00   0.60, 0.01  
 Calcium channel blocker 12.9***, 0.04 6.6* − 0.24, 0.00   0.27, 0.00   0.95*, 0.01  
 β-Blocker 12.8***, 0.06 9.4*** 0.33, 0.00   − 0.01, 0.00   1.02**, 0.02 0.8
Laboratory analyses
 HbA1c, % 0.9, 0.00   − 1.2**, 0.02   0.55***, 0.04 0.4** 0.33, 0.01  
 Triglycerides, mmol/L 1.2, 0.00   − 1.4*, 0.01   0.43*, 0.01   0.38*, 0.01 0.4*
 LDL-C, mmol/L − 1.2, 0.00   − 0.32, 0.00   − 0.05, 0.00   − 0.15, 0.00  
 Microalbuminuria 14.8***, 0.05 8.4** − 1.8, 0.01   0.49, 0.00   1.55**, 0.03 1.1*
 Creatinine, µmol/L 0.3***, 0.04 0.2* 0.02, 0.00   0.01, 0.00   0.00, 0.00  
 GFR, mL/min/1.73 m2 − 0.1, 0.00   − 0.03, 0.00   0.00, 0.00   − 0.01, 0.00  
Blood pressure (mmHg)
 Systolic blood pressure 0.3***, 0.03 0.2* − 0.02, 0.00   0.02**, 0.02   0.06***, 0.07 0.06***
 Diastolic blood pressure 0.2, 0.01   − 0.05, 0.00   0.06***, 0.03 0.04** 0.04*, 0.01  
  1. Results from univariable regression Y = β0 + β1*X + ε. Results are presented as estimated regression parameters β1 and p-values (* p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01 and *** p < 0.001) for parameters and R2. Hypothesis tested H0: β0 and β1 = 0 against H1: β0 and β1 ≠ 0. Note that the β0 term is not presented in the table. Final results of multivariable linear regression analysis Y = Β X + ε of LV mass, LVEF and E/é. B is the estimated vector of regression parameters in the multivariable model. ε represents the error-term in the model. Results are presented as estimated regression parameters, p-values for the parameters, and R2, the explained proportion of variation in the outcome variable by the explanatory variables. LV mass are indexed by body surface area. See abbreviations as in Tables 1 and 2