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Table 3 Crude and multivariable Cox proportional hazard model for cardiovascular disease and sensitive analysis for cardiovascular disease after exclusion of the patients who developed cardiovascular disease within 2 years

From: Progression of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes

  Crude HR (95% CI) P value Age and sex adjusted HR (95% CI) P value Fully adjusted HR (95% CI) P value
Overall risk of CVD       
Non-progression of CAN Reference   Reference   Reference  
Progression of CAN 4.31 (2.49–7.47) < 0.001 3.68 (2.10–6.47) < 0.001 3.32 (1.81–6.14) < 0.001
Non-progression Reference   Reference   Reference  
Normal to early 2.73 (1.28–5.81) 0.009 2.30 (1.07–4.94) 0.032 2.68 (1.19–6.02) 0.017
Early to definite 5.18 (2.63–10.20) < 0.001 4.29 (2.12–8.66) < 0.001 3.35 (1.55–7.26) 0.002
Normal to definite 6.99 (3.19–15.32) < 0.001 6.58 (2.99–14.47) < 0.001 4.91 (2.05–11.77) < 0.001
P for trend < 0.001   < 0.001   0.001  
Subgroup analysis       
Age < 60 years       
 Non-progression of CAN Reference   Reference   Reference  
 Progression of CAN 8.04 (3.01–21.51) < 0.001 8.29 (3.05–22.51) < 0.001 5.49 (1.89–16.00) 0.001
Age ≥ 60 years       
 Non-progression of CAN Reference   Reference   Reference  
 Progression of CAN 2.59 (1.33–5.03) 0.005 2.46 (1.25–4.81) 0.009 2.29 (1.10–4.77) 0.03
Diabetes duration < 10 years       
 Non-progression of CAN Reference   Reference   Reference  
 Progression of CAN 5.37 (2.16–13.38) < 0.001 4.40 (1.73–11.17) 0.002 5.34 (1.81–15.70) 0.002
Diabetes duration ≥ 10 years       
 Non-progression of CAN Reference   Reference   Reference  
 Progression of CAN 3.20 (1.58–6.49) 0.001 3.02 (1.48–6.16) 0.002 2.67 (1.24–5.74) 0.012
BMI < 25 kg/m2       
 Non-progression of CAN Reference   Reference   Reference  
 Progression of CAN 5.28 (2.43–11.47) < 0.001 4.86 (2.22–10.64) < 0.001 4.87 (2.00–11.90) 0.001
BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2       
 Non-progression of CAN Reference   Reference   Reference  
 Progression of CAN 3.70 (1.66–8.26) 0.001 2.81 (1.22–6.48) 0.016 3.39 (1.38–8.37) 0.008
Mean HbA1c < 9.0%       
 Non-progression of CAN Reference   Reference   Reference  
 Progression of CAN 3.47 (1.67–7.20) 0.001 2.88 (1.35–6.16) 0.006 3.16 (1.41–7.10) 0.005
Mean HbA1c < 9.0%       
 Non-progression of CAN Reference   Reference   Reference  
 Progression of CAN 4.47 (1.86–10.72) 0.001 3.91 (1.61–0.95) 0.003 5.44 (2.01–14.72) 0.001
Sensitive analysis       
Non-progression of CAN Reference   Reference   Reference  
Progression of CAN 3.41 (1.81–6.43) < 0.001 2.94 (1.54–5.63) 0.001 2.85 (1.40–5.78) 0.004
  1. CVD cardiovascular disease, CAN cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy