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Table 2 Descriptive characteristics according to the progression status of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy

From: Progression of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes

  Non-progression Normal → early Early → definite Normal → definite P-value
(N = 404) (N = 79) (N = 65) (N = 30)
Women, n (%) 220 (54.5) 49 (62.0) 41 (63.1) 19 (63.3) 0.341
Age (years) 57.1 ± 10.1 59.9 ± 10.0 62.0 ± 11.1 60.7 ± 8.8 < 0.001
Diabetes duration (years) 9.1 ± 5.7 11.4 ± 6.6 14.2 ± 7.1 11.5 ± 5.6 < 0.001
Body mass index (kg/m2) 24.8 ± 3.2 24.2 ± 3.4 24.7 ± 3.4 25.7 ± 2.9 0.518
Hypertension, n (%) 163 (42.2) 35 (46.7) 31 (50.0) 13 (44.8) 0.655
Smoking, n (%) 93 (23.0) 12 (15.2) 15 (23.1) 4 (13.3) 0.295
Alcohol, n (%) 105 (26.0) 18 (22.8) 13 (20.0) 2 (6.7) 0.091
Insulin, n (%) 87 (21.5) 14 (17.7) 30 (46.2) 10 (33.3) < 0.001
ACE inhibitor/ARBs, n (%) 122 (30.2) 25 (31.6) 24 (36.9) 10 (33.3) 0.742
Calcium channel blocker, n (%) 63 (15.6) 20 (25.3) 13 (20.0) 5 (16.7) 0.198
Aspirin, n (%) 28 (6.9) 7 (8.9) 6 (9.2) 4 (13.3) 0.57
Statin, n (%) 44 (10.9) 9 (11.4) 8 (12.3) 4 (13.3) 0.968
FPG (mmol/L) 8.3 ± 2.7 8.4 ± 2.8 9.1 ± 4.3 9.4 ± 1.5 0.006
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 86.7 ± 16.1 84.3 ± 17.7 81.1 ± 20.6 85.2 ± 18.9 0.042
Mean HbA1c (%) 8.1 ± 1.5 8.2 ± 1.4 9.2 ± 1.6 9.2 ± 1.4 < 0.001
SD HbA1c 1.1 ± 1.0 0.7 ± 0.6 1.3 ± 1.3 1.2 ± 1.1 0.285
Mean HbA1c (mmol/L) 65.1 ± 16.0 64.8 ± 16.3 76.9 ± 17.3 77.4 ± 15.6 < 0.001
Mean total cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.7 ± 0.9 4.7 ± 0.9 4.7 ± 0.9 5.2 ± 0.8 0.009
Mean triglyceride (mmol/L) 1.7 ± 1.0 1.7 ± 0.8 1.6 ± 0.9 1.8 ± 1.1 0.971
Mean HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.2 ± 0.3 1.1 ± 0.3 1.1 ± 0.3 1.2 ± 0.3 0.445
Mean LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 2.7 ± 0.8 2.8 ± 0.8 2.8 ± 0.9 3.2 ± 0.6 0.003
UAE (mg/day) 48.1 ± 191.4 142.5 ± 481.0 182.7 ± 513.5 120.4 ± 137.9 0.001
  1. Values are presented as number (%) or mean ± SD
  2. CAN cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker, FPG fasting plasma glucose, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, SD standard deviation, UAE urinary albumin excretion