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Table 1 Baseline parameters between the group with and without progression of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy

From: Progression of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes

  Total CAN progression (−) CAN progression (+) P-value
(N = 578) (N = 404) (N = 174)
Women, n (%) 329 (56.9) 220 (54.5) 109 (62.6) 0.083
Age (years) 58.3 ± 10.3 57.1 ± 10.1 60.9 ± 10.3 < 0.001
Diabetes duration (years) 10.1 ± 6.2 9.1 ± 5.7 12.4 ± 6.7 < 0.001
Body mass index (kg/m2) 24.7 ± 3.2 24.8 ± 3.2 24.7 ± 3.4 0.710
Hypertension, n (%) 242 (43.8) 163 (42.2) 79 (47.6) 0.284
Smoking, n (%) 124 (21.5) 93 (23.0) 31 (17.8) 0.198
Alcohol, n (%) 138 (23.9) 105 (26.0) 33 (19.0) 0.087
Insulin, n (%) 141 (24.4) 87 (21.5) 54 (31.0) 0.020
ACE inhibitor/ARBs, n (%) 181 (31.3) 122 (30.2) 59 (33.9) 0.433
Calcium channel blocker, n (%) 101 (17.5) 63 (15.6) 38 (21.8) 0.090
Aspirin, n (%) 45 (7.8) 28 (6.9) 17 (9.8) 0.318
Statin, n (%) 65 (11.2) 44 (10.9) 21 (12.1) 0.789
FPG (mmol/L) 8.4 ± 2.9 8.3 ± 2.7 8.8 ± 3.3 0.053
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 85.6 ± 17.1 86.7 ± 16.1 83.3 ± 19.0 0.040
Mean HbA1c (%) 8.3 ± 1.5 8.1 ± 1.5 8.8 ± 1.6 < 0.001
SD HbA1c 1.1 ± 1.0 1.1 ± 1.0 1.0 ± 1.0 0.787
Mean HbA1c (mmol/L) 67.1 ± 16.7 65.1 ± 16.0 71.5 ± 17.6 < 0.001
Mean total cholesterol (mmol/L) 4.7 ± 0.9 4.7 ± 0.9 4.8 ± 0.9 0.078
Mean triglyceride (mmol/L) 1.7 ± 1.0 1.7 ± 1.0 1.7 ± 0.9 0.931
Mean HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.2 ± 0.3 1.2 ± 0.3 1.1 ± 0.3 0.204
Mean LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 2.8 ± 0.8 2.7 ± 0.8 2.9 ± 0.8 0.021
UAE (mg/day) 79.8 ± 298.9 48.1 ± 191.4 153.8 ± 453.3 0.004
  1. Values are presented as number (%) or mean ± SD
  2. CAN cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker, FPG fasting plasma glucose, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, SD standard deviation, UAE urinary albumin excretion