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Fig. 2 | Cardiovascular Diabetology

Fig. 2

From: Glycemic control by the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin decreases aortic stiffness, renal resistivity index and kidney injury

Fig. 2

Empagliflozin ameliorates microalbuminuria and renal artery stiffness. a EMPA ameliorates progression of microalbuminuria and b renal resistivity index (RRI) and pulsatility index (PI) (N = 5–6/group). c Correlation analysis indicates a positive relationship between EC stiffness and PI. d The left side of panel shows Color Doppler flow in the left renal artery (LRA) and the right panel shows representative Doppler flow spectra obtained to calculate RRI and PI for DbC and DbE (CkC not shown). ej Mechanical properties of renal arteries were evaluated by ex vivo pressure myography in vessels from DbE and compared with those of vessels from DbC (n = 5/group). e Pressure diameter curves. f Wall/lumen ratios and mean wall thickness (insert). g Wall cross-sectional area (CSA). h Strain–stress relationships showing that EMPA increased the distensibility of renal arteries compared to those of DbC. i Incremental moduli of elasticity showing that EMPA reduced the stiffness of renal arteries. j The calculated incremental pulse wave velocity (cPWVinc) of renal arteries from EMPA treated mice was significantly reduced compared to those from DbC. The values are mean ± SE. PSV peak systolic velocity, LDV lowest diastolic velocity, *p < 0.05 vs. CkC; p < 0.05 vs. DbC

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