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Table 2 Demographics and clinical characteristics in propensity-score matched cohorts of new-users of DPP-4 inhibitors and GLP-1 agonists

From: Risk of heart failure hospitalization among users of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors compared to glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists

Patient characteristics after PS matching DPP-4 inhibitors GLP-1 agonists Std-diff %a
(n = 160,803) (n = 160,803)
Mean age, years (± SD) 52.7 (± 10.9) 53.0 (± 10.2) − 0.01
Sex, n (%)
 Male 71,879 (44.7) 70,914 (44.1) − 0.02
 Female 88,924 (55.3) 89,889 (55.9)  
Comorbidities, n (%)
 Asthma 10,291 (6.4) 10,291 (6.4) 0.00
 COPD 6432 (4.0) 6593 (4.1) − 0.01
 CKD 4342 (2.7) 4663 (2.9) − 0.02
 Ischemic heart disease 19,457 (12.1) 20,100 (12.5) − 0.01
 Depression 7397 (4.6) 7558 (4.7) 0.01
 Hypoglycemia 4985 (3.1) 5146 (3.2) 0.01
 Hyperlipidemia 92,301 (57.4) 91,336 (56.8) 0.00
 Cancer 9809 (6.1) 10,291 (6.4) − 0.01
 Hypertension 95,839 (59.6) 95,678 (59.5) 0.00
Use of other diabetes medications, n (%)
 Metformin 100,019 (62.2) 99,698 (62.0) 0.01
 TZD 39,236 (24.4) 39,397 (24.5) 0.00
 α-Glucosidase inhibitors 804 (0.5) 804 (0.5) 0.00
 Insulin 28,141 (17.5) 29,749 (18.5) − 0.03
 Meglitinides 3698 (2.3) 3698 (2.3) 0.00
Use of other medications, n (%)
 ACE inhibitors 53,226 (33.1) 53,065 (33.0) 0.00
 Aldosterone receptor antagonists 3859 (2.4) 4020 (2.5) − 0.01
 α-Blockers 6915 (4.3) 7075 (4.4) − 0.01
 Angiotensin-receptor blockers 23,638 (14.7) 23,638 (14.7) 0.00
 β-Blockers 36,181 (22.5) 36,985 (23.0) − 0.01
 Calcium-channel blockers 23,799 (14.8) 23,960 (14.9) − 0.01
 Loop diuretics 16,402 (10.2) 17,367 (10.8) − 0.01
 Potassium-sparing diuretics 4181 (2.6) 4181 (2.6) − 0.01
 Thiazide diuretics 2412 (1.5) 2412 (1.5) 0.00
 Vasodilators 965 (0.6) 965 (0.6) 0.00
Healthcare utilization, mean (± SD)
 Mean number of inpatient visits 1.4 (± 0.9) 1.3 (± 0.7) − 0.09
 Mean number of outpatient visits 15.5 (± 14.5) 16.8 (± 14.5) − 0.10
  1. ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme, CKD chronic kidney disease, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, DPP-4 dipeptidyl peptidase-4, GLP-1 glucagon-like peptide-1, PS propensity score, SD standard deviation, Std-diff standardized difference, TZDs thiazolidinediones
  2. a Imbalance in standardized difference is defined as an absolute value > 0.20