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Table 1 Demographics and clinical characteristics of new-users of DPP-4 inhibitors and GLP-1 agonists prior to propensity score matching

From: Risk of heart failure hospitalization among users of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors compared to glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists

Patient characteristics before PS matching DPP-4 inhibitors GLP-1 agonists P-value
(n = 358,632) (n = 174,711)  
Mean age, years (± SD) 59.0 (± 12.1) 52.9 (± 10.4) < 0.001
Sex, n (%)
 Male 196,172 (54.7) 75,475 (43.2) < 0.001
 Female 162,460 (45.3) 99,236 (56.8)  
Type of DPP-4 inhibitors
 Saxagliptin 51,233 (14.3) NA
 Sitagliptin 286,259 (79.8) NA
 Alogliptin 20,720 (5.8) NA
 Linagliptin 409 (0.1) NA
Comorbidities, n (%)
 Asthma 19,007 (5.3) 11,182 (6.4) < 0.001
 COPD 21,518 (6.0) 7163 (4.1) < 0.001
 CKD 24,028 (6.7) 4717 (2.7) < 0.001
 Ischemic heart disease 64,554 (18) 22,188 (12.7) < 0.001
 Depression 11,835 (3.3) 8386 (4.8) < 0.001
 Stroke 22,235 (6.2) 5591 (3.2) < 0.001
 Hypoglycemia 11,835 (3.3) 5765 (3.3) 0.320
 Hyperlipidemia 196,889 (54.9) 95,567 (54.7) 0.354
 Cancer 35,863 (10.0) 11,007 (6.3) < 0.001
 Hypertension 222,352 (62.0) 100,634 (57.6) < 0.001
 Acute myocardial infarction 5379 (1.5) 1223 (0.7) < 0.001
 Heart failurea 8966 (2.5) 1747 (1.0) < 0.001
 Prior cardiovascular diseases 81,051 (22.6) 27,255 (15.6) < 0.001
Use of other diabetes medications, n (%)
 Metformin 210,876 (58.8) 108,845 (62.3) < 0.001
 TZDs 94,320 (26.3) 48,395 (27.7) < 0.001
 α-Glucosidase inhibitors 2152 (0.6) 1048 (0.6) 0.694
 Insulin 35,863 (10.0) 39,485 (22.6) < 0.001
 Meglitinides 9683 (2.7) 4717 (2.7) 0.507
Use of other medications, n (%)
 ACE inhibitors 128,390 (35.8) 57,655 (33.0) < 0.001
 Aldosterone receptor antagonists 8966 (2.5) 4542 (2.6) 0.047
 α-Blockers 24,746 (6.9) 7687 (4.4) < 0.001
 Angiotensin-receptor blockers 56,305 (15.7) 26,381 (15.1) < 0.001
 β-Blockers 104,721 (29.2) 40,358 (23.1) < 0.001
 Calcium-channel blockers 68,857 (19.2) 26,207 (15.0) < 0.001
 Loop diuretics 45,546 (12.7) 20,092 (11.5) < 0.001
 Potassium-sparing diuretics 9683 (2.7) 4892 (2.8) 0.233
 Thiazide diuretics 6455 (1.8) 2795 (1.6) < 0.001
 Vasodilators 4304 (1.2) 1048 (0.6) < 0.001
Healthcare utilization, mean (± SD)
 Mean number of outpatient visits 16.8 (± 15.9) 17 (± 14.6) < 0.001
 Mean number of inpatient visits 1.3 (± 0.7) 1.4 (± 0.9) < 0.001
  1. ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme, CKD chronic kidney disease, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, DPP-4 dipeptidyl peptidase-4, GLP-1 glucagon-like peptide-1, PS propensity score, SD standard deviation, TZDs thiazolidinediones
  2. a Excluding heart failure cases that occurred during the 60 day period prior to the index-date