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Table 1 Summary of selected clinical studies reported on the effect of SGLT-2 inhibitors on cardiovascular outcomes

From: Potential mechanisms responsible for cardioprotective effects of sodium–glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors

Model n Treatment Major findings Interpretation References
T2DM + high CV risk 7020 RCTs (EMPA-REG OUTCOME trial); Empagliflozin (10 or 25 mg/days) vs. placebo/PO/3.1 years ↓ Cardiovascular-cause death (38% RRR)
↓ All-cause death (32% RRR)
↓ HHF (35% RRR)
↔ MI, stroke
Empagliflozin reduced the rate of HHF, death from cardiovascular and/or any causes in T2DM population at high risk for CV events [12]
T2DM + high CV risk 10,142 RCTs (CANVAS trial); Canagliflozin (100 or 300 mg/days) vs. placebo/PO/3.6 years ↓ Composite of cardiovascular-cause death, nonfatal MI or nonfatal stroke (HR 0.86, 95% CI 0.75–0.97)
↓ HHF (HR 0.67, 95% CI 0.52–0.87)
↔ All-cause death, cardiovascular-cause death, nonfatal MI, nonfatal stroke
Canagliflozin reduced the rate of HHF and composite of death from cardiovascular causes, nonfatal MI or nonfatal stroke in T2DM population at high risk for CV events [13]
T2DM 309,056 Retrospective observational (CVD-REAL study); SGLT-2 inhibitors vs. glucose-lowering drugs/> 1 year ↓ HHF (HR 0.49, 95% CI 0.41–0.57)
↓ All-cause death (HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.51–0.73)
SGLT-2 inhibitors reduced all-cause death and HHF compared with other glucose-lowering drugs in T2DM population [14]
T2DM 14,697 Retrospective observational; SGLT-2 inhibitors vs. DPP-4 inhibitors/2 years ↓ HHF (HR 0.68, 95% CI 0.54–0.86) SGLT-2 inhibitors reduced HHF compared with DPP-4 inhibitors in T2DM population [15]
  1. SGLT-2 sodium–glucose co-transporter 2, T2DM type 2 diabetic mellitus, CV cardiovascular, RCTs randomized control trials, vs versus, RRR relative risk reduction, HHF hospitalization for heart failure, MI myocardial infarction, HR hazard ratio, 95% CI 95% confidence interval, DPP-4 dipeptidyl peptidase-4