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Fig. 6 | Cardiovascular Diabetology

Fig. 6

From: Beneficial effects of cherry consumption as a dietary intervention for metabolic, hepatic and vascular complications in type 2 diabetic rats

Fig. 6

Disorders observed in HFHF rats and beneficial impacts of cherry consumption in addition to nutritional intervention. Cherry consumption associated with nutritional strategy has multiple beneficial effects against complications induced by T2D. In blood, cherry consumption decreased fasting glucose, C-peptide and HOMA-IR leading to reduced hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinemia, assuring physiological glucose and insulin tolerance. Cherry consumption decreased adipose tissue dysfunction and thus decreasing weight gain, body mass index (BMI) and abdominal circumference. Cherry consumption normalized adipokines secretion [leptine, cholesterol (Chol), triglycerides (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA)] and then eliminated dyslipidemia and hyperinsulinemia. Cherry consumption decreased systemic oxidative stress and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) complications by increasing catalase (CAT) activity and total antioxidant capacity (TAOC). All these systemic beneficial effects of cherry consumption led to suppressed endothelial dysfunction. Nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability was increased in accordance with the decrease of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the increase of the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) leading to physiological relaxation of the vessel. Cherry consumption in the liver decreased p22phox, a subunit of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH oxidase) and thus decreased superoxide anion (O2) formation. In addition, cherry consumption inhibited the ubiquitin-degradation of the nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2), all leading to eliminated oxidative stress and linked inflammation. Additionally, cherry consumption decreased carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein (ChREBP) and sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBP-1 and -2), then decreased TG accumulation and steatosis. SOD: superoxide dismutase, upward arrow increase, downward pointing arrow decrease, X: suppress. Black information: effect of diabetes; red information: effect of cherry consumption

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