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Table 4 Respective and combined effects of short-term and long-term glycemic variability on baroreflex sensitivity

From: Visit-to-visit HbA1c variability is inversely related to baroreflex sensitivity independently of HbA1c value in type 2 diabetes

Variables Group 1 (n = 16) Group 2 (n = 13) Group 3 (n = 13) Group 4 (n = 15) p value§ Test for trend p value
BRS (msec/mmHg)
 Mean ± SD 9.58 ± 3.0 7.10 ± 1.9* 6.64 ± 2.2* 6.66 ± 2.4* 0.004 0.002
 p value   0.045 0.012 0.009   
Age (years) 66.9 ± 5.6 67.2 ± 7.5 65.9 ± 8.4 68.6 ± 9.6 0.840  
Diabetes duration (years) 8.3 ± 8.2 14.3 ± 12.4 8.2 ± 4.2 15.4 ± 10.4 0.069  
CGM CV (mg/dL) 18.3 ± 2.5 29.5 ± 5.5* 18.1 ± 3.5 29.1 ± 5.9* 0.000  
Two-year mean HbA1c (%) 6.6 ± 0.4 6.8 ± 0.8 7.6 ± 0.8* 7.8 ± 1.1* 0.000  
HbA1c CV (%) 0.030 (0.024–0.044) 0.027 (0.021–0.033) 0.065 (0.060–0.114)* 0.082 (0.064–0.107)* 0.000  
  1. Values are mean ± SD or median (25th–75th percentiles). Group 1, both CGM CV and HbA1c CV below median CV value. Group 2, CGM CV only above median. Group 3, HbA1c CV only above median. Group 4, both CGM CV and HbA1c CV above median values
  2. BRS baroreflex sensitivity, CV coefficient of variation, SD standard deviation, CGM continuous glucose monitoring
  3. Results of the Tukey post hoc test, the Games-Howell post hoc test, or the Bonferroni post hoc test (1) compared with Group 1: *p < 0.05; (2) compared with Group 2: p < 0.05; (3) compared with Group 3: p < 0.05
  4. § The analysis of variance (ANOVA) or the Kruskal–Wallis test was used to compare BRS among the four groups