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Table 3 Multiple regression analysis of baroreflex sensitivity

From: Visit-to-visit HbA1c variability is inversely related to baroreflex sensitivity independently of HbA1c value in type 2 diabetes

Independent variables Univariate Multivariate
r p Model 1 Model 2 Model 3
β p β P β p
(a)
 HbA1c CV (%) − 0.354 0.007 − 0.341 0.020 − 0.359 0.014 − 0.339 0.014
 Two-year mean HbA1c (%) − 0.384 0.003 − 0.073 0.641 − 0.052 0.741 − 0.006 0.969
 CGM CV (mg/dL) − 0.325 0.014 − 0.288 0.035 − 0.308 0.025 − 0.229 0.072
 Age (years) − 0.358 0.006 − 0.323 0.008 − 0.330 0.006 − 0.302 0.008
 Sex (male/female) 0.550 − 0.129 0.283 − 0.161 0.180 − 0.149 0.182
 BMI (kg/m2) 0.006 0.965 − 0.221 0.120 − 0.205 0.127 − 0.159 0.212
 SBP (mmHg) 0.154 0.252 0.067 0.585
 LDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) 0.074 0.586 0.122 0.297
 Heart rate (beats/min) − 0.446 0.001 − 0.300 0.011
(b)
 HbA1c SD (%) − 0.384 0.003 − 0.373 0.021 − 0.395 0.014 − 0.371 0.014
 Two-year mean HbA1c (%) − 0.384 0.003 − 0.020 0.906 0.006 0.971 0.048 0.769
 CGM CV (mg/dL) − 0.325 0.014 − 0.288 0.035 − 0.309 0.025 − 0.230 0.071
 Age (years) − 0.358 0.006 − 0.322 0.008 − 0.328 0.006 − 0.301 0.008
 Sex (male/female) 0.550 − 0.130 0.278 − 0.163 0.176 − 0.150 0.179
 BMI (kg/m2) 0.006 0.965 − 0.228 0.111 − 0.215 0.113 − 0.167 0.192
 SBP (mmHg) 0.154 0.252 0.064 0.606
 LDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) 0.074 0.586 0.123 0.290
 Heart rate (beats/min) − 0.446 0.001 − 0.299 0.011
(c)
 Adjusted HbA1c SD (%) − 0.391 0.003 − 0.376 0.020 − 0.397 0.014 − 0.376 0.013
 Two-year mean HbA1c (%) − 0.384 0.003 − 0.017 0.919 0.007 0.967 0.051 0.752
 CGM CV (mg/dL) − 0.325 0.014 − 0.290 0.034 − 0.309 0.025 − 0.231 0.070
 Age (years) − 0.358 0.006 − 0.318 0.009 − 0.325 0.007 − 0.297 0.009
 Sex (male/female) 0.550 − 0.131 0.273 − 0.163 0.173 − 0.152 0.174
 BMI (kg/m2) 0.006 0.965 − 0.227 0.111 − 0.213 0.115 − 0.166 0.193
 SBP (mmHg) 0.154 0.252 0.065 0.596
 LDL-cholesterol (mg/dL) 0.074 0.586 0.122 0.297
 Heart rate (beats/min) − 0.446 0.001 − 0.301 0.010
  1. Dependent variable was baroreflex sensitivity, and the independent variables were Model 1, Model 2, and Model 3. Model 1: age, sex, BMI, CGM CV, mean HbA1c, visit-to-visit HbA1c variability, and SBP; Model 2: age, sex, BMI, CGM CV, mean HbA1c, visit-to-visit HbA1c variability, and LDL-cholesterol; Model 3: age, sex, BMI, CGM CV, mean HbA1c, visit-to-visit HbA1c variability, and heart rate; Visit-to-visit HbA1c variability was (a) HbA1c CV (b) HbA1c SD, and (c) adjusted HbA1c SD; Model 1 (a) R-squared 0.398, adjusted R-squared 0.312, (b) R-squared 0.398, adjusted R-squared 0.312, (c) R-squared 0.399, adjusted R-squared 0.313; Model 2 (a) R-squared 0.408, adjusted R-squared 0.324, (b) R-squared 0.409, adjusted R-squared 0.324, (c) R-squared 0.409, adjusted R-squared 0.325; Model 3 (a) R-squared 0.471, adjusted R-squared 0.395, (b) R-squared 0.471, adjusted R-squared 0.395, (c) R-squared 0.472, adjusted R-squared 0.397
  2. CV coefficient of variation, SD standard deviation, CGM continuous glucose monitoring, BMI body mass index, SBP systolic blood pressure, LDL low-density lipoprotein