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Table 1 Baseline characteristics

From: Prognostic impact of HbA1c variability on long-term outcomes in patients with heart failure and type 2 diabetes mellitus

  HFpEF (LVEF ≥ 50%) HFmrEF (LVEF 40–49%) HFrEF (LVEF < 40%) P value
n 290 (32.2) 131 (14.5) 481 (53.3)  
Age (years) 70.6 ± 6.7 69.7 ± 6.0 68.4 ± 8.2 < 0.001
Women (gender) 119 (41.0) 45 (34.4) 132 (27.4) < 0.001
Medical history
 Ischemic HF 116 (40.0) 55 (42.0) 240 (49.9) 0.019
 Prior PCI 64 (22.1) 26 (19.8) 111 (23.1) 0.729
 Prior CABG 17 (5.9) 6 (4.6) 33 (6.9) 0.604
 Hypertension 214 (73.8) 94 (71.8) 305 (63.4) 0.007
 Duration of T2DM (years) 8.3 ± 2.7 8.3 ± 2.4 8.3 ± 2.4 0.875
 Atrial fibrillation 113 (39.0) 52 (39.7) 144 (29.9) 0.014
 Stroke 32 (11.0) 12 (9.2) 56 (11.6) 0.724
 COPD 32 (11.0) 11 (8.4) 52 (10.8) 0.687
 Smoking 81 (27.9) 39 (29.8) 149 (31.0) 0.670
 Dyslipidemia 82 (28.3) 40 (30.5) 139 (28.9) 0.894
HF device-therapies
 ICD 5 (1.7) 1 (0.7) 8 (1.7) 0.868
 CRT-P 0 0 4 (0.8) 0.284
 CRT-D 0 0 4 (0.8) 0.284
Medications
 ACEI/ARB 204 (70.3) 110 (84.0) 410 (85.2) < 0.001
 Beta-blocker 200 (69.0) 90 (68.7) 393 (81.7) < 0.001
 Diuretics 163 (56.2) 83 (63.4) 299 (62.2) 0.196
 Spironolactone 75 (24.8) 33 (25.2) 186 (38.7) < 0.001
 Anticoagulant 29 (10.0) 14 (10.7) 45 (9.4) 0.882
 Antiplatelet 146 (50.3) 58 (44.3) 259 (53.8) 0.142
 Statin 107 (36.9) 47 (35.9) 188 (39.1) 0.728
 Oral anti-diabetic drugs 175 (60.3) 86 (65.6) 326 (67.8) 0.110
 Sulfonylurea 116 (40.0) 56 (42.7) 216 (44.9) 0.410
 Glinides 26 (9.0) 11 (8.4) 32 (6.6) 0.475
 Biguainde 64 (22.1) 26 (19.8) 92 (19.1) 0.641
 α-GI 42 (14.5) 21 (16.0) 56 (11.6) 0.309
 DPP-4 inhibitor 17 (5.9) 7 (5.3) 29 (6.0) 0.957
 Insulin 83 (28.6) 35 (26.7) 113 (23.5) 0.273
Clinical status
 NYHA class, in Classes I–IV 26/110/138/16 21/43/59/8 81/182/200/18 0.052
 Heart rate (bpm) 80.1 ± 8.9 78.9 ± 8.5 80.3 ± 10.3 0.356
 Systolic BP (mmHg) 132.0 ± 11.9 128.6 ± 12.1 128.9 ± 14.8 0.006
 Diastolic BP (mmHg) 78.5 ± 9.0 76.7 ± 7.8 77.7 ± 7.8 0.128
Laboratory variables
 eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 61.6 ± 9.5 61.7 ± 9.5 60.3 ± 9.0 0.104
 Haemoglobin (g/dL) 11.8 ± 1.4 11.9 ± 1.2 12.0 ± 1.2 0.175
 BNP (pg/mL) 772.0 ± 309.6 804.9 ± 306.1 912.0 ± 489.5 < 0.001
 Number of HbA1c measurements 10.4 ± 1.9 10.6 ± 1.9 10.7 ± 2.0 0.108
 Baseline HbA1c (%) 7.2 ± 0.6 7.2 ± 0.5 7.2 ± 0.6 0.307
 HbA1c-mean (%) 7.2 ± 0.6 7.2 ± 0.5 7.3 ± 0.6 0.103
 HbA1c-SD (%) 0.66 ± 0.09 0.65 ± 0.08 0.67 ± 0.08 0.061
 HbA1c-CV (%) 9.24 ± 1.36 9.05 ± 1.22 9.23 ± 1.32 0.317
Echo data
 LVEF (%) 59.3 ± 4.8 44.3 ± 2.0 34.4 ± 2.6 < 0.001
 LAD (mm) 41.9 ± 3.9 41.8 ± 4.3 43.0 ± 4.6 0.001
 E/e′ 13.0 ± 2.0 12.9 ± 2.2 13.5 ± 2.6 0.005
  1. Data are presented as mean ± SD or number (%) of subjects
  2. HF heart failure, PCI percutaneous coronary intervention, CABG coronary artery bypass graft, T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, HF heart failure, ICD implantable cardioverter defibrillator, CRT-P cardiac resynchronization therapy-pacemaker, CRT-D cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator, ACEI/ARB angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin II receptor blocker, α-GI alpha-glucosidase inhibitor, DPP dipeptidyl peptidase, NYHA New York Heart Association functional class, BP blood pressure, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, BNP B-type natriuretic peptides, HbA1c hemoglobin A1c, HbA1c-SD standard deviation of HbA1c, HbA1c-CV coefficient of variation of HbA1c, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, LAD left atrium diameter, E/e’ mitral Doppler early velocity/mitral annular early velocity