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Table 5 Observed percentage changes of glucose and lipid variables of patients during combination therapy of metformin (M) and atorvastatin (A)/simvastatin (S)

From: Actions of metformin and statins on lipid and glucose metabolism and possible benefit of combination therapy

Nr. Study ref. Treatment before the study Combination treatment Daily doses Time (months) N Differences: end of the study versus baseline (%) Subject type
BMI HOMA IR FFA FPG HbA1c TG TC LDL HDL
1 [138] 40 mg S S + P 40 mg S 3 21   − 2 − 2 1 (6.5)   − 1 (1.39)     Patients with isolated IFGa, who because of hypercholesterolemia and/or coronary artery disease were treated for at least 3 months with S (40 mg daily), thus have a normal lipid profile (TC < 5.17 mmol/l, LDL < 3.36 mmol/l, TG < 1.69 mmol/l)
40 mg S S + M 40 mg S + 3 × 1000 mg M 3 20   − 62 − 25 − 5 (6.6)   − 12 (1.37)    
2 [139] 40 mg S S + P 40 mg S 3 29   10 − 2 3 (6.2) 2     
40 mg S S + M 40 mg S + 3 × 1000 mg M 3    − 57 − 32 − 5 (6.3) − 8     
3 [140] 40 mg S S + P 40 mg S 3 29   4 − 3 2 (6.3) 0 2 (1.45) 1 1 − 2
40 mg S S + M 40 mg S + 3x 1000 mg M 3 24   − 55 − 24 − 5 (6.4) − 11 − 14 (1.41) − 2 − 3 8
4 [141] M 850 mg M 3 17   − 22   − 11 − 17 − 1 10   6 Newly diagnosed T2DM with/without hypercholesterolemia (9/17 patients) and/or family history of DM (9/17)
M + A 850 mg M + 10 mg A 3 18   − 2   − 15 − 19 − 23 − 28   − 10 Newly diagnosed T2DM with/without hypercholesterolemia (14/17 patients) and/or family history of DM (15/18)
5 [142] M 850 mg M 1.5 17     ~− 10 (9.3) − 3 − 22 (1.35)   − 28 − 6.5 Newly diagnosed T2DM with/without hypercholesterolemia (9/17 patients) and/or family history of DM (9/17)
M + A 850 mg M + 10 mg A 1.5 15     ~− 13 (9.7) − 16 − 15 (1.7)   − 36 − 11 Newly diagnosed T2DM with/without hypercholesterolemia (14/15 patients) and/or family history of DM (15/15)
6 [137] Metformin/statin/− M + A 500 mg M + 10 mg A 3 213 − 7    − 35 (10.2) − 23.1 − 24 − 31 − 35 9 T2DM patients receiving metformin slow release and newly diagnosed with dyslipidemia or on atorvastatin with newly diagnosed diabetes or patients with newly diagnosed diabetic dyslipidemia. BMI ≥ 25, FPG levels between 7.8 and 13.9 mmol/l, postprandial glucose levels > 11.1 mmol/l, HbA1c levels between 7–12%
7 [82] Metformin M + A 2*1000 mg M + 20 mg A 3 109 − 2    − 8 (7.8) − 1 − 12 (2.1) − 9 − 17 3 Patients with a diagnosis of T2DM and treated with metformin
8 [143] A 20 mg A 2 65 − 7    − 3 (5.9) 2 − 10 (1.9) − 7 − 16 0 Non-diabetic overweight/obese patients with dyslipidemia
M + A 2*500 mg M + 20 mg A 2 65 − 6    − 2 (5.7) 2 − 33 (1.9) − 10 − 16 10 Non-diabetic overweight/obese patients with dyslipidemia
  1. P placebo, HOMA IR homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance, FFA free fatty acids, FPG fasting plasma glucose, TG triglycerides, TC total cholesterol, LDL low-density lipoprotein, HDL high-density lipoprotein. Values between brackets for FPG and TG indicate baseline values in mmol/l
  2. aIsolated impaired fasting glucose (IFG) indicates a FPG between 5.6 and 7 mmol/l and a plasma glucose 2 h after a 75 g OGTT below 7.8 mmol/l
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