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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of matched pairs in all patients

From: Association between sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors and a reduced risk of heart failure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a real-world nationwide population-based cohort study

  DPP-4i (n = 59,479) SGLT-2i (n = 59,479) Standardized difference
Age (years), mean (SD) 53.4 (12.4) 53.2 (11.9) 0.012
Male 54.75 54.86 0.002
Hypertension 60.46 60.33 0.003
Dyslipidemia 81.98 82.05 0.002
Chronic kidney disease 7.74 7.55 0.007
Cardiovascular disease
 AMI 1.57 1.43 0.011
  Other ischemic heart disease 14.25 14.02 0.007
  Heart failure 3.39 3.41 0.001
  Cerebral infarction 3.82 3.71 0.006
  Cerebrovascular event 5.33 5.24 0.004
 Peripheral artery occlusive disease 0.66 0.61 0.006
 Coronary revascularization procedures
  Coronary artery bypass graft 0.04 0.03 0.003
  Percutaneous coronary intervention 2.02 1.99 0.002
Microvascular complications of diabetes
 Nephropathy 10.46 10.34 0.004
 Neuropathy 7.17 6.99 0.007
 Retinopathy 13.04 12.93 0.003
Atrial fibrillation 1.58 1.52 0.004
Other heart disease 11.79 11.71 0.002
Hypoglycemia 2.2 2.16 0.002
Asthma 12.56 12.49 0.002
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 4.84 4.74 0.005
Connective tissue disease 3.57 3.58 0.001
Pancreatitis 1.5 1.49 0.001
Osteoporosis 7.67 7.36 0.012
Alcohol intakea 4.66 4.65 <0.001
Smokinga 0.15 0.16 0.002
Obesitya 0.39 0.39 0.001
Medication use (180 days prior to index date)
 Antidiabetic agent
  Metformin 80.88 81.18 0.008
  Sulfonylurea 37.29 36.77 0.011
  Thiazolidinediones 9.74 9.11 0.022
  Alpha-glucosidase inhibitor 4.86 4.71 0.007
  Meglitinide 0.81 0.73 0.009
   Insulin 14.45 13.84 0.017
 Diuretics
  Loop diuretics 3.83 3.79 0.002
  Thiazide 14.86 14.68 0.005
  Aldosterone antagonist 2.01 1.92 0.006
  Potassium sparing diuretics 0.05 0.06 0.006
 Anti-hypertensive agent
  Calcium channel blocker 29.7 29.74 0.001
  ACEI 3.06 2.95 0.007
  ARB 47.68 47.62 0.001
  Beta blocker 9.92 9.65 0.009
  Alpha blocker 0.71 0.67 0.005
 Digoxin 0.7 0.72 0.002
 Aspirin 23.39 22.98 0.01
 P2Y12 inhibitor 8.55 8.38 0.006
 Warfarin 0.58 0.58 <0.001
 NOAC 0.66 0.53 0.017
 Lipid-lowering agent
  Statin 53.42 53.02 0.008
  Fibrate 10.59 10.74 0.005
  Ezetimibe 8.54 8.51 0.001
Cardiologist visit (30 days prior to index date) 12.47 12.4 0.002
Hospitalization (30 days prior to index date) 7.33 6.9 0.017
Hospitalization (30–365 days prior to index date) 20.96 20.3 0.016
Emergency department visit (365 days prior to index date) 6.08 5.84 0.010
  1. Data presented as frequencies in percentage or means (SD)
  2. Less than 0.1 (10%) on the absolute value of standardized difference was considered as a negligible difference between groups. The mean (SD) standardized difference of all covariates was 0.59% (0.49%)
  3. ACEI angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, AMI acute myocardial infarction, ARB angiotensin II receptor antagonists, DPP-4i dipeptidyl-peptidase IV inhibitor, NOAC novel oral anticoagulant, SD standard deviation, SGLT2i sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, SU sulfonylurea
  4. aConfirmed by diagnosis code (International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision)