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Table 1 General characteristics of study participants with and without newly diagnosed diabetes

From: Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue: a favorable adipose depot for diabetes?

Variables

Men

Women

Non-diabetes (n = 4614)

Newly diagnosed diabetes (n = 787)

P for differencesa

Non-diabetes (n = 5734)

Newly diagnosed diabetes (n = 1002)

P for differencesa

Age (years)

56.6 (6.5)

57.6 (6.4)

< 0.001

56.3 (6.5)

58.4 (6.4)

< 0.001

Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L)

5.7 (0.5)

7.7 (2.1)

< 0.001

5.7 (0.5)

7.3 (1.8)

< 0.001

2-h plasma glucose (mmol/L)

6.9 (1.7)

13.6 (4.3)

< 0.001

7.4 (1.6)

13.8 (3.9)

< 0.001

Body mass index (kg/m2)

24.7 (3.0)

25.9 (3.1)

< 0.001

24.6 (3.2)

25.9 (3.5)

< 0.001

Waist circumference (cm)

86 (9)

89 (9)

< 0.001

82 (9)

85 (9)

< 0.001

Body fat percentage (%)

22.1 (5.1)

24.3 (4.8)

< 0.001

34.5 (5.5)

36.7 (5.8)

< 0.001

Systolic blood pressureb (mmHg)

131 (14)

136 (15)

< 0.001

130 (15)

137 (15)

< 0.001

Diastolic blood pressureb (mmHg)

84 (8)

86 (8)

< 0.001

82 (9)

85 (8)

<0.001

VFA (cm2)

116.8 (52.0)

145.6 (55.4)

< 0.001

104.2 (39.5)

128.3 (45.4)

< 0.001

SFA (cm2)

123.2 (46.2)

136.7 (47.2)

< 0.001

166.0 (57.0)

173.6 (60.7)

< 0.001

VFA/SFA

0.97 (0.36)

1.11 (0.41)

< 0.001

0.67 (0.28)

0.80 (0.33)

< 0.001

Levels of education, n (%)c

  

0.65

  

< 0.001

 Primary school or less

1864 (40.9)

326 (42.4)

 

2989 (52.7)

635 (64.2)

 

 Middle school

2211 (48.6)

369 (48.0)

 

2234 (39.4)

295 (29.8)

 

 High school or more

478 (10.5)

74 (9.6)

 

450 (7.9)

59 (6.0)

 

Smoking habit, n (%)

  

0.001

  

0.49

 Never smoker

1913 (41.5)

363 (46.1)

 

5718 (99.7)

1001 (99.9)

 

 Ex-smoker

259 (5.6)

61 (7.8)

 

7 (0.1)

0

 

 Current smoker

2442 (52.9)

363 (46.1)

 

9 (0.2)

1 (0.1)

 

Alcohol consumption, n (%)

  

0.129

  

0.003

 Never drinker

2976 (64.5)

479 (60.9)

 

5702 (99.4)

995 (99.3)

 

 Ex-drinker

113 (2.4)

19 (2.4)

 

1 (0.02)

3 (0.3)

 

 Current drinker

1525 (33.1)

289 (36.7)

 

31 (0.5)

4 (0.4)

 

Leisure-time physical activity, n (%)

  

0.85

  

0.66

 0 min/day

4375 (94.8)

750 (95.3)

 

5386 (93.9)

945 (94.3)

 

 1–29 min/day

105 (2.3)

16 (2.0)

 

139 (2.4)

26 (2.6)

 

 ≥ 30 min/day

134 (2.9)

21 (2.7)

 

209 (3.6)

31 (3.1)

 

Family history of diabetes, n (%)d

559 (12.1)

133 (16.9)

< 0.001

709 (12.4)

227 (22.7)

< 0.001

Glucose regulation status

  

  

 Normal glucose regulation

2576 (55.8)

 

3082 (53.7)

 

 Isolated impaired fasting glucose

630 (13.7)

 

502 (8.8)

 

 Isolated impaired glucose tolerance

927 (20.1)

 

1503 (26.2)

 

 Combined impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance

481 (10.4)

 

647 (11.3)

 
  1. Data are presented as mean (SD), or frequency (percentage). BMI body mass index, SFA subcutaneous fat area, and VFA visceral fat area
  2. aP for difference was calculated with the use of the Chi square test, and Mann–Whitney U for the comparison of participants with and without newly diagnosed diabetes
  3. bMissing data: n = 2 (0.04%) in men without diabetes
  4. cMissing data: n = 61 (1.3%) in men without diabetes, n = 18 (2.3%) in men with newly diagnosed diabetes, n = 61 (1.1%) in women without diabetes, n = 13 (1.3%) in women with newly diagnosed diabetes
  5. dMissing data: n = 4 (0.07%) in women without diabetes, n = 1 (0.10%) in women with newly diagnosed diabetes