Skip to main content


Fig. 5 | Cardiovascular Diabetology

Fig. 5

From: Inhibition of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II restores contraction and relaxation in isolated cardiac muscle from type 2 diabetic rats

Fig. 5

The CaMKII inhibitor AIP fully restores developed force and rates of contraction and relaxation in trabeculae from ZDF rats. a KN93 inhibits CaMKIIδ by preventing calmodulin binding at the regulatory domain, whereas AIP inhibits substrate binding at the catalytic domain. b Developed force (Fdev). c Maximum rate of contraction (dF/dtmax). d Maximum rate of relaxation (dF/dtmin). e Relaxation time from 50 to 90% relaxation (RT90%). Data are mean ± SEM. Non-diabetic ZDF rat control, black straight line, n = 5, Type 2 diabetic ZDF rat control, dotted black line, n = 6; Type 2 diabetic ZDF rat AIP, blue straight line, n = 9. Data are mean ± SEM. For all parameters two-way between groups ANOVA: condition effect, #p < 0.05 and treatment effect (AIP) *p < 0.05

Back to article page